UTIs are caused by bacteria. The bacteria cling to the opening of the urethra. There they begin to grow and spread. The infection can then move up into the bladder. If the infection is not treated it can spread to the kidney. It can then lead to a severe kidney infection.
The bacteria often come from the colon or vagina. They are passed or moved toward the urethra.
UTIs are more common in women.
Other factors that may increase your chance of a UTI include:
UTIs are treated with antibiotics. You will probably start to feel better after 1-2 days. It is important to take all of the medicine, even if you feel better. A hospital stay may be needed with a severe infection. The antibiotics can then be delivered through an IV.
The infection may cause pain and spasms in the bladder. Your doctor may recommend medicine to help manage pain.
To help decrease the risk of a UTI:
Empty your bladder completely
Drink a full glass of water
Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day.
If the UTI is due to a problem with the urinary tract it may need to be fixed. The repair may help prevent future infections.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 91: Treatment of urinary tract infections in nonpregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111(3):785-794. Reaffirmed 2016.
Bladder infection (urinary tract infection—UTI) in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/bladder-infection-uti-in-adults. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Pohl A. Modes of administration of antibiotics for symptomatic severe urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD003237.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) (pyelonephritis and cystitis). DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116894/Uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-UTI-pyelonephritis-and-cystitis. Updated March 15, 2017. Accessed November 30, 2017.
What is a urinary tract infection (UTI) in adults? Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=47. Accessed September 1, 2015.
Last reviewed September 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 7/3/2018
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