Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These cells grow in the bone marrow and help the body fight infections. ALL happens when the bone marrow makes too many of these cells. This makes it hard for the cells to work as they should. It also makes it hard for other types of blood cells to develop.
The goal of treatment is to kill cancer cells and return blood and bone marrow back to normal. You will be monitored closely during and after treatment. One of more of these methods may be used:
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It is given by pill, injection, or IV. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body.
It kills mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells.
Drugs may also be injected into the fluid in the spinal column to kill cancer cells that spread to the brain and spinal column. This is called intrathecal therapy.
Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. External radiation therapy is used to direct radiation at the tumor from outside the body. It is used for ALL that may or has spread to the brain and spinal cord.
Stem Cell Transplant
Stem cells are immature blood cells. They are removed from a person's blood or bone marrow before treatment is done. They may also be taken from a healthy donor. A stem cell transplant puts the cells in the body after treatment. These cells can develop new, healthy cells.
Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy
Targeted therapy uses drugs to attack parts of cancer cells. Some ALL cells have an abnormal chromosome that specific drugs can target and attack. These drugs are called tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They are used with chemotherapy.
Immunotherapy is the use of medicine to help the body’s immune system fight cancer. Monoclonal antibodies made in a lab may be used to attack a specific target, such as a protein on the surface of a cancer cell. Another type of therapy removes immune cells from a person's body, makes changes to them in a lab, and puts them back in the blood so they can better fight cancer.
There are no current guidelines for preventing ALL.
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Aldoss I, Stein AS. Advances in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. Leuk Lymphoma. 2018;59(5):1033-1050.
General information about adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/adult-all-treatment-pdq. Accessed March 21, 2021.
General information about childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/child-all-treatment-pdq. Accessed March 21, 2021.
Leukemia in children. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children.html. Accessed March 21, 2021.
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