During the "golden years," good nutrition is just as important as ever. But, many older adults become malnourished for a variety of reasons. If you or someone you care for is having trouble getting proper nutrition, here are some practical tips.
While many people seem to focus their diets solely around trying to lose weight and prevent disease, the nutrition problems facing the elderly can be quite different.
For many elders, it is not a matter of eating too much, but rather a matter of not getting enough. And this all comes at a time of life when getting adequate nutrition—including protein, fiber, hydration, vitamins, and minerals—may be more difficult.
Adding to the problem is that many older people deal with a variety of chronic medical conditions. These conditions can contribute to poor nutrition and can also be worsened by poor nutrition.
Several factors can cause malnutrition in older adults, including the following:
Although there are many reasons why older people may become malnourished, there are also many practical ways for dealing with the problem. If you or someone you care for is experiencing malnutrition or unintentional weight loss, the best first step is to see the doctor, who may be able to diagnose an underlying condition or alter a medication regimen that may be contributing to the problem. A doctor can also provide a referral to a registered dietitian, who can design a personalized eating plan. In addition, here are some everyday tips for preventing malnutrition in older adults:
This means making nutrient-rich foods the focus of the meal. For example, instead of plain chicken broth, try a hearty chicken and vegetable soup. Casseroles, stews, and roasts are also good meal ideas.
For people who have a small appetite, there are ways to boost nutrition without adding lots of extra food. For example:
Because many elders have diminished sense of taste and smell, making food as flavorful as possible is important. Try cooking with garlic and onion powder, salt-free seasoning blends, and fresh and dried herbs, such as basil, oregano, thyme, rosemary, and cilantro.
Instead of regular mashed potatoes, try mashed sweet potatoes for a colorful and nutritious boost. Instead of plain buttered noodles, try pasta with a vibrant red tomato sauce.
Older people with diminished appetites are often overwhelmed by large meals, so eating smaller, more frequent meals and snacks can be less overwhelming.
For people with a small appetite, it is important not to fill up on things like coffee, tea, and soft drinks, which can take the place of more nutritious items.
Serve up a variety of foods. Research shows that elderly adults eat more when presented with a variety of foods to choose from. Here are some strategies to increase the variety on the table:
When possible, invite friends or family over for meal times or visit community-based senior meal sites for social interaction during meals.
While a well-balanced diet is the best bet, some people may find it easier to sip a nutrition supplement drink than to eat a meal. But, talk to your doctor or dietitian to see if this is something that you should do.
Many communities offer a wide range of nutrition services for older adults, including community dining sites, home-delivered meals, and home visits with registered dietitians. Research shows that meal services, such as Meals on Wheels, can improve or help maintain nutritional status in seniors. Contact your local town or city hall, department of health, or community hospital to find out what services are available in your area.
Administration for Community Living
Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Canadian Council for Dietetic Research
Dietitians of Canada
Hollis JH, Henry CJ. Dietary variety and its effect on food intake of elderly adults. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007;20(4):345-351.
Older adults. Choose My Plate—US Department of Agriculture website. Available at: https://www.choosemyplate.gov/older-adults. Updated November 16, 2016. Accessed May 4, 2017.
Special nutrient needs of older adults. Eat Right—American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website. Available at: http://www.eatright.org/resource/health/wellness/healthy-aging/special-nutrient-needs-of-older-adults. Updated May 5, 2015. Accessed May 4, 2017.
Strategies to improve nutrition in elderly people. Better Medicine NZ website. Available at: http://www.bpac.org.nz/BPJ/2011/May/elderly.aspx. Accessed May 4, 2017.
Wells JL, Dumbrell AC. Nutrition and aging: assessment and treatment of compromised nutritional status in frail elderly patients. Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(1):67-79.
Last reviewed May 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 5/4/2017