Symptoms of periodontal disease may include:
Gum (Periodontal) Disease. NIH SeniorHealth website. Available at: http://nihseniorhealth.gov/periodontaldisease/riskfactorsandprevention/01.html. Accessed August 17. 2016.
Gum disease symptoms. American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: https://www.perio.org/consumer/gum-disease-symptoms.htm. Accessed August 17. 2016..
Periodontal Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/OralHealth/periodontal_disease/. Updated March 10, 2015. Accessed August 17. 2016.
Periodontal (gum) disease: Causes, symptoms, and treatments. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/GumDiseases/PeriodontalGumDisease.htm#howDoI. Updated September 2013. Accessed August 17. 2016.
Last reviewed September 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 11/1/2017