A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of developing a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing PMS. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
PMS is most common in women between the ages of 25-40.
Women with depression are more likely to have PMS than those who do not have depression. Having a personality disorder may also increase a woman’s risk for developing PMS.
Stress is thought to play a role in the severity of PMS symptoms.
Low levels of certain vitamins and minerals (for example, magnesium, manganese, vitamin E) may increase a woman’s risk for developing PMS. Risk of PMS is also higher in women who eat a lot of salty foods. This can lead to fluid retention. A diet with a lot of simple sugars (for example, candy, sweet drinks) may cause mood changes and fatigue.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113966/Premenstrual-syndrome. Updated June 9, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-syndrome-pms.html. Updated April 2014. Accessed August 18, 2016.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) fact sheet. Office on Women's Health website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/premenstrual-syndrome.html. Updated December 23, 2014. Accessed August 18, 2016.
Last reviewed September 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 9/17/2014