Jaundice is a yellow coloring in your baby’s skin, and sometimes, the whites of the eyes. Newborn jaundice happens during the first weeks of life. There are many types of jaundice, including:
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The yellow coloring is caused by bilirubin. Bilirubin is a waste product. It is created when red blood cells are broken down. Bilirubin normally passes out of the body through feces or urine. Jaundice occurs when there is an abnormal buildup of bilirubin. Different types of jaundice have different reasons for the abnormal buildup of bilirubin:
Newborn jaundice is more common in children of East Asian, Mediterranean, or Native American descent.
Factors that may increase your baby’s chance newborn jaundice include:
The main symptom of jaundice is yellow skin color. The color usually starts in the face. The yellow color may then spread down to the stomach and legs. Certain environments may make your baby appear yellow. To look for yellow skin, place your baby near a window or in a room with fluorescent light. If you are still unsure, press gently on the baby’s forehead or chest. Watch as the color reappears.
Call your baby's doctor if you suspect your baby has jaundice.
If your baby has been diagnosed with jaundice, call your doctor if:
Very high levels of bilirubin in your baby’s blood can be dangerous. It can lead to a very rare form of brain damage called kernicterus. It is important to see a doctor if your baby has signs of this condition. Call the doctor immediately if your baby:
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all babies are assessed for jaundice before they leave the hospital. Your baby will be checked again at 3-5 days of age. If your doctor suspects jaundice, you will be asked about your baby’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may include:
Most babies with jaundice will not need treatment. Jaundice in formula-fed infants will usually clear up in 2 weeks. In breastfed babies, jaundice usually clears up in 2-3 weeks.
If treatment is needed, talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan. Treatment options include:
Increased breastfeeding can help clear bilirubin from a baby's body. 8-12 feedings will be needed per 24-hour period. Do not let the baby sleep for more than 4 hours without feeding during this time period. If breastfeeding is a problem, ask your doctor or lactation specialist for help.
Babies that are formula-fed will need to get extra formula. Ask the doctor for guidelines as to how much formula should be provided. The baby may need to be given 1-2 ounces (30-60 milliliters) of formula every 2-3 hours.
For most jaundice, extra breastfeeding is helpful. However, breast milk jaundice is caused by the breast milk. the doctor may recommend stopping breastfeeding for a couple days. This will let the bilirubin decrease. Once the jaundice has cleared, it is safe to resume breastfeeding.
Phototherapy is the use of special lights. The lights help alter the bilirubin in the blood. The bilirubin can then easily pass in the urine or through the gastrointestinal tract.
the baby will be placed naked, or wearing only a small diaper, under special blue or white lights. A shield will help to protect the baby's eyes. Phototherapy may be done at home or in the hospital.
These light are specially designed to treat the bilirubin without harming your baby's skin. Putting your baby in the direct sunlight is NOT recommended. Direct sunlight on a naked baby can cause dangerous sunburn.
In the most severe cases of jaundice, your doctor may recommend a blood transfusion. A transfusion will replace your baby’s blood with new blood. The excess bilirubin will be removed with the blood.
There are no current guidelines to prevent newborn jaundice.
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
March of Dimes
Public Health Agency of Canada
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Jaundice in healthy newborns. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/jaundice.html. Updated January 2015. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Muchowski KE. Evaluation and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(11):873-878.
Neonatal cholestasis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113788/Neonatal-cholestasis. Updated March 14, 2017. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116718/Neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia. Updated July 31, 2017. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/metabolic_electrolyte_and_toxic_disorders_in_neonates/neonatal_hyperbilirubinemia.html. Updated August 2015. Accessed September 21, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD Last Updated: 9/30/2013