Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. It causes injury to the myelin layer that covers nerve fibers in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.
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MS is thought to be caused by a problem with the body's immune system. The immune system attacks and damages the myelin. The reason why is not known.
MS is more common in females. Other things that may raise a child's chance of MS are:
There are many types of MS. When it occurs during childhood, it usually is relapsing and remitting. This means that the symptoms reappear every few months or years, last for a few weeks or months, then go away again.
Symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include:
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
Blood tests may be done. If the results are not clear, the child will be referred to a doctor who treats problems of the nerves and nervous systems.
Images may be taken of the brain and spinal cord. This can be done with an MRI scan.
A lumbar puncture may also be done. It will check for signs of MS in the fluid that protects the spinal cord and brain.
There is no cure for MS. The goals of treatment are to:
Medicines used to treat MS in children are:
Plasma exchange removes the proteins damaging the myelin from the blood. Fresh plasma is added to the blood during the procedure.
A child with MS may also need to work with a:
There are no guidelines to prevent MS.
Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada
Multiple sclerosis. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Multiple%20Sclerosis.aspx. Accessed December 31, 2019.
Multiple sclerosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/multiple-sclerosis-ms. Updated September 5, 2019. Accessed December 31, 2019.
Pediatric MS. National Multiple Sclerosis Society website. Available at: http://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS/Who-Gets-MS/Pediatric-MS. Accessed December 31, 2019.
Zurawski J, Stankiewicz J. Multiple Sclerosis Re-Examined: Essential and Emerging Clinical Concepts. Am J Med. 2018 May;131(5):464-472.
Last reviewed September 2019 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD Last Updated: 6/10/2020