Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. This article will focus on cystitis caused by an infection.
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Bacteria can cause an infection in the bladder. The bacteria normally live in the colon or vagina. It may be passed or move to the area urine leaves the body. The bacteria can then travel up into the bladder. If a bladder infection is left untreated it can lead to a kidney infection.
Less often, acute cystitis nay be caused by medication or trauma.
Acute cystitis is more common in women. Other factors that may increase your risk of uncomplicated cystitis include:
Factors that increase your risk of complicated cystitis include:
Symptoms may include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. A sample of your urine will be studied for blood and pus. Sometimes the urine will be tested to look for the exact type of bacteria.
A CT scan may be needed for more severe or recurrent problems. The scan may help to see problems or blockages in the bladder.
A bladder infection can be treated with antibiotics. It is important to take all of the medication as recommended. A hospital stay may be needed with a severe infection. This will allow the antibiotics to be delivered through IV.
The infection may cause pain and spasms in the bladder. Your doctor may recommend medicine to help manage pain until it passes.
If the cystitis is caused by medication or trauma those causes will need to be managed.
To help decrease the risk of a bladder infection:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Urology Care Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
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Katchman EA, Milo G, et al. Three-day vs longer duration of antibiotic treatment for cystitis in women: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2005;118(11):1196-1207.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) (pyelonephritis and cystitis). DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116894/Uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infection-UTI-pyelonephritis-and-cystitis. Accessed January 29, 2021.
What I need to know about urinary tract infections. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/uti_ez. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Last reviewed March 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD Last Updated: 01/29/2021