What Is Lactose?
Lactose is a type of carbohydrate. It is in milk and milk products. Some people call it milk-sugar. It is broken down in the small intestines by an enzyme called lactase.
Why Should I Follow This Diet?
If you are lactose intolerant, your body can't break down large amounts of lactose. It may cause gas, bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Eating less lactose will ease these problems.
Lactose intolerance happens when there is isn't enough lactase enzyme. It can also happen if you have problems with your small intestines.
The goal is to ease problems until they don't bother you. The amount of lactose you can eat differs from person to person. Keep a log of the foods that you eat. Write down any problems that you have.
Lactose is in all dairy items. Some items have more than others. It can also be in other foods. To find out if a food has it, look for these words on the label:
- Dried milk
- Milk solids
- Powdered milk
These foods don't have lactose:
- Lactose-free milk like Lactaid
- Broth-based soups
- Soy, almond, and rice milk
- Fish, beef, pork, lamb, and poultry prepared without dairy products
- Tofu and tofu products made without dairy products
- Bread, cereal, and crackers prepared without dairy products
Low Lactose Foods
These foods have two grams or less per serving. Most people can eat them in small amounts.
- Aged cheese, like Swiss, Cheddar, or Parmesan—1 to 2 ounces
- Cream cheese—2 tablespoons
- Cottage cheese—½ cup
- Orange sherbet—½ cup
Finding the Right Amount
Try cutting back on dairy products first. You may be able to have it in small amounts or with other foods. Cultured dairy products, such as yogurt and kefir, don't often cause problems. They have bacteria that help break down the lactose. Aged cheeses have low amounts of lactose and often don't cause problems.
Alternatives to regular milk are lactose-reduced and lactose-free milk. Nondairy choices are soy milk and rice milk.
Lactase enzyme tablets can also be taken when milk and milk products are eaten. They have the enzyme you need to break down the lactose.
Dairy products are a good source of calcium. Milk is also fortified with vitamin D, which your body needs to use calcium. If you cut back on or stop eating these foods, be sure you are getting these nutrients somewhere else. Good sources of calcium are fortified orange juice, fortified breakfast cereals, canned fish with bones, and tofu. Good sources of vitamin D are salmon, mackerel, egg yolks, and sunlight.
- Use a food log to find out which foods cause problems for you.
- Slowly make changes to your diet and note the changes.
- Try cutting down on the serving sizes of foods that have lactose.
- Eat lactose-containing foods with other foods.
- Read food labels for items that may have lactose.
- Look for Kosher food products labeled “Pareve.” This means they don't have dairy.
- Try taking a lactase pill before you eat foods with lactose.
- Work with a dietitian to make changes.
American Gastroenterological Association
Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Calcium. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at:https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing-reference-center. Updated May 19, 2017. Accessed December 4, 2018.
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/. Accessed December 4, 2018.
Lactose intolerance. American Gastroenterological Association website. Available at: https://www.gastro.org/practice-guidance/gi-patient-center/topic/lactose-intolerance. Accessed December 4, 2018.
Lactose intolerance. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/lactose-intolerance/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed December 4, 2018.
Lactose intolerance in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115565/Lactose-intolerance-in-adults. Updated June 29, 2018. Accessed December 4, 2018.
Last reviewed December 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review BoardDianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN Last Updated: 12/4/2018