Orchitis is pain and swelling in one or both testicles. It may also affect fertility.
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Orchitis is often caused by an infection from:
In others, the cause is not known.
Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:
Behaviors that raise the risk of STIs also raise the risk of orchitis. These are:
The main problem is pain and swelling of the testicles. Other problems may be:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the testicles. This may be enough to make the diagnosis.
These tests may be done to look for signs of infection:
Images of the testicles may be taken. This can be done with an ultrasound.
Treatment depends on the cause. The goal is to ease pain and swelling. Medicines may be given, such as:
People who are not helped by medicine may need surgery. Choices are:
The risk of this problem may be lowered by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Urology Care Foundation
Canadian Urological Association
Public Health Agency of Canada
Acute epididymitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/acute-epididymitis. Accessed February 15, 2021.
McConaghy JR, Panchal B. Epididymitis: An Overview. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Nov 1;94(9):723-726.
Orchitis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/penile-and-scrotal-disorders/orchitis. Accessed February 15, 2021.
What are epididymitis and orchitis? Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/epididymitis-and-orchitis. Accessed February 15, 2021.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board James P. Cornell, MD Last Updated: 2/15/2021