Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve in the heart. The mitral valve is in the left side of the heart between the upper and lower chambers of the heart. The valve normally keeps blood flowing in the right direction from the upper to the lower chambers.
This problem makes it hard for blood to move from the upper and lower chambers. This means there is less blood for the lower chamber to pump out to the body. The blood can also back up in the upper chamber and push back into the lungs.
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The most common cause of mitral stenosis is rheumatic fever. This infection may happen after strep throat or scarlet fever. It can scar the heart valves. Mitral stenosis may develop 5 to 10 years after infection.
Less common causes are:
The risk of this problem is higher in children who have rheumatic fever. Other things that may raise the risk are:
Problems may be:
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
Images may be taken of your child's heart. This can be done with:
Your child's heart function may be tested. This can be done with:
Treatment for mild stenosis may not be needed right away. The child may be monitored for changes.
Children who do need treatment may be given medicines to:
Some children may need surgery to prevent heart damage. Choices are:
The risk of this problem may be lowered by diagnosing and treating strep throat infections right away.
American Heart Association
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Canadian Family Physician
Mitral stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/mitral-stenosis. Accessed March 9, 2021.
Mitral valve abnormalities. Seattle Children’s Hospital website. Available at: https://www.seattlechildrens.org/conditions/mitral-valve-abnormalities. Accessed March 9, 2021.
Nishimura RA, Otto CM, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jun 10;63(22):e57-e185.
Shipton B, Wahba H. Valvular heart disease: review and update. Am Fam Physician. 20011;63:2201.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD