A risk factor is something that raises the chances of getting a health problem. A person can get cirrhosis with or without the ones listed below. The chances of getting it are greater in people who have many.
Risk factors for cirrhosis are:
Alcohol is toxic to liver cells. It damages the liver by changing how the body breaks down food. Drinking excess amounts of alcohol over a long period of time raises the risk of cirrhosis.
People who have alcohol use disorder often have poor diets. This can also lead to cirrhosis.
Hepatitis infections are caused by viruses that are spread from exposure to the body fluids of an infected person. Some infections go away on their own. Others may last a long time and lead to liver inflammation and injury. Over time, this can lead to cirrhosis.
Common types are:
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a buildup of fat in the liver that is not caused by drinking alcohol. It can lead to a type of NAFLD called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This can lead to cirrhosis. This type of hepatitis is associated with:
Health problems that damage the bile ducts can cause bile to back up and damage liver tissue. This can lead to cirrhosis. Some of these health problems in adults are:
In infants, blocked bile ducts may happen due to biliary atresia. This is when the bile ducts are injured or missing at birth.
Health problems like heart failure or constrictive pericarditis can cause congestion in the liver. Over time, this can lead to scarring.
Some inherited disorders cause problems with the way the liver works. This can lead to liver damage. Some of these health problems are:
This health problem happens when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy liver cells.
Other health problems that can damage the liver are:
Autoimmune hepatitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/autoimmune-hepatitis. Accessed January 6, 2021.
Cirrhosis. American Liver Foundation website. Available at: http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/cirrhosis. Accessed January 6, 2021.
Cirrhosis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/liver-disease/cirrhosis. Accessed January 6, 2021.
Cirrhosis of the liver. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/cirrhosis-of-the-liver-31. Accessed January 6, 2021.
Ge PS, Runyon BA. Treatment of Patients with Cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 25;375(8):767-777.
What is viral hepatitis? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/abc/index.htm. Accessed January 8, 2021.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD Last Updated: 1/8/2021