The heart should work in a regular, steady pattern. Arrhythmias are breaks in the pattern. It may happen in a short burst or last over long periods of time.
Types of arrhythmias:
Most will not affect overall health. Some arrhythmias can slow the flow of blood to the body or increase the risk of other health problems such as stroke.
The action of the heart is controlled by an electrical signal. The signal starts in a group of cells called the sinoatrial (SA) node and moves from the top to the bottom of the heart. The heart will contract first in the upper areas of the heart called the atria and then the lower areas of the heart called the ventricles. Arrhythmias may occur if:
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Factors that may increase your chances of arrhythmias:
Not all arrhythmias will cause symptoms. Some arrhythmias may be felt as a fluttering in the chest, skipped heartbeat, or fast heartbeat.
Arrhythmias that slow the flow of blood through the heart will also slow the flow of blood to the body. If the flow is slowed enough it can lead to:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms, past health, and family history. A physical exam will be done. The electrical activity of the heart can be checked with one of the following:
To help find what may be causing problems or to look for problems of the heart structure the doctor may also order:
Not all arrhythmias need to be treated. Many are harmless and will not cause problems.
Treatment may be needed for arrhythmias that affect daily life or increase the risk of other problems like stroke. In this case, the goal of treatment is to return your heart to a normal rhythm. The type of treatment will depend on the arrhythmia and overall health. It may include:
Not all arrhythmias can be prevented. To help reduce your chances of certain arrhythmias:
American Heart Association
Heart Rhythm Society
Canadian Heart Rhythm Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Arrhythmias. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/Arrhythmia_UCM_002013_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed November 28, 2020.
Arrhythmia. Texas Heart Institute website. Available at: http://www.texasheart.org/HIC/Topics/Cond/Arrhythmia.cfm. Accessed November 28, 2020.
Atrial fibrillation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115288/Atrial-fibrillation. Accessed November 28, 2020.
Explore arrhythmia. National Heart, Lung, and Blood website. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/arr. Accessed November 28, 2020.
Sick sinus syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113692/Sick-sinus-syndrome. Accessed November 28, 2020.
Ventricular arrhythmias. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T909129/Ventricular-arrhythmias. Accessed November 28, 2020.
Last reviewed November 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC