Lymph nodes are found throughout the body. They are part of the body’s immune system. These nodes help fight infection by making white blood cells. They also work by trapping bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. Normally, lymph nodes cannot be felt unless they are swollen. Infection, usually by a virus, is the most common cause of lymph node swelling. Other causes include bacterial infection and cancer.
With this type of biopsy, the doctor removes all or part of a lymph node so it can be further examined.
This biopsy is done to find out why a node is swollen. Swelling may be caused by infection, cancer, or another disease such as sarcoidosis.
Common areas for biopsy include:
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Leading up to your procedure, you will need to:
Lymph nodes samples can be obtained by:
There are 2 types of needle biopsies:
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An open biopsy means removing the lymph nodes through an incision. A cut will be made in the skin. All or part of a lymph node will be removed. After removal, the incision will be closed with stitches and bandaged.
The sample will be sent to the lab for examination.
About 30-60 minutes—longer if an ultrasound or CT scan is used
You will have some pain and tenderness after the biopsy is taken. Your doctor may give you pain medication.
Be sure to follow your doctor's instructions. Results will be ready in about a week. Your doctor will tell you if further treatment is needed.
Call your doctor if any of these occur:
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
American Cancer Society
National Cancer Institute
Canadian Cancer Society
Cancer Care Ontario
Sentinel lymph node biopsy. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/staging/sentinel-node-biopsy-fact-sheet. Accessed January 26, 2021.
Testing biopsy and cytology specimens for cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/treatment/understanding-your-diagnosis/tests/testing-biopsy-and-cytology-specimens-for-cancer.html. Accessed January 26, 2021.
Last reviewed November 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review BoardNicole S. Meregian, PA