Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the transfer of islet cells from a donor pancreas to another person. Islet cells contain beta cells that the body needs to make insulin. Type 1 diabetes happens when the body's immune system attacks and destroys beta cells. Newly transplanted islet cells can make insulin. This may reduce or eliminate the need for insulin injections.
The procedure is being studied as a method to treat people with chronic, uncontrolled type 1 (and some type 2) diabetes.
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This procedure may be done on people with severe hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) and those who cannot control their diabetes using other methods.
Problems are rare, but all procedures have some risk. The doctor will go over some problems that could happen, such as:
Things that may raise the risk of problems are:
Your care team will determine if you are eligible for a transplant. If approved, it may take months or years to find a donor.
The surgical team may meet with you to talk about:
The doctor may give:
Small incisions will be made in the abdomen. A small plastic tube will be placed through the incision and into a major blood vessel of the liver. An ultrasound will be used to guide the tube to the right location. The donated islet cells will be injected through the tube. The cells will travel through the vein and attach to the liver.
After the operation, you will be taken to the recovery room for observation. Your blood glucose levels will be monitored.
Abdominal pain is common in the first 2 hours. Medicine can help.
3 to 8 days
Right after the procedure, the staff will:
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to lower your risk of infection, such as:
There are also steps you can take to lower your risk of infection, such as:
Call the doctor if you are not getting better or you have:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American College of Surgeons
American Diabetes Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2021. Diabetes Care 2021 Jan;44(Suppl 1):S1-S244.
Diabetes mellitus type 1. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/diabetes-mellitus-type-1-39. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Islet Transplant for Type 1 Diabetes. University of California San Francisco website. Available at: https://transplantsurgery.ucsf.edu/conditions--procedures/islet-transplant-for-type-1-diabetes.aspx. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Pancreatic Islet transplantation. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/insulin-medicines-treatments/pancreatic-islet-transplantation. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD