Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine
(MMR Vaccine; Measles Vaccine; Mumps Vaccine; Rubella Vaccine)
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
What Are Measles, Mumps, and Rubella?
Measles is an infection from a virus. It can cause rash, cough, runny nose, and fever. It can lead to ear infection, pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and death.
Mumps is an infection from a virus. It can cause fever, headache, muscle pain, lack of hunger, and swollen glands in front of the ears. It can lead to deafness, infection of the brain and spinal cord covering, painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries, and sterility.
Rubella is an infection from a virus. It can cause rash, mild fever, or arthritis. Pregnant women who have it are at higher risk for miscarriage. Their babies may be born with birth defects.
What Is the Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine?
The measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine is 3 live viruses. The viruses in it have been made harmless.
It is given under the skin.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
Most children should get it twice:
It can also be given to babies younger than 12 months but older than 6 months before travel to other countries. They should also get the 2 routine shots at ages 12 to 15 months and 4 to 6 years.
Adults born after 1956 who have not been vaccinated before may need at least 1 dose. Talk with your doctor if you were not vaccinated before.
What Are the Risks Associated With the MMR Vaccine?
Most people who get the vaccine do not have any problems. The most common ones are a fever and a rash 1 to 2 weeks after it is given. There may be redness and swelling at the site. Rare problems are:
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
Some people should not get it or should wait, such as:
Most children and teens should get their vaccines on time. Certain groups should not get them:
What Other Ways Can Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Be Prevented?
If you have measles, mumps, or rubella, you should be kept apart from other people to stop it from spreading. Stay home until it is over. Let others you have been in contact with know that they may have been exposed to the virus.
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
A case of the measles, mumps, or rubella needs to be reported to public health authorities. If you think you or your child has it, call the doctor right away.
Anyone who may have been exposed and has not been fully immunized will need to get the vaccine.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/drug-monograph/measles-mumps-and-rubella-vaccine. Accessed October 27, 2020.
MMR vaccine: What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed October 27, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board James P. Cornell, MD
Last Updated: 4/30/2021
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.
All rights reserved.