A1. Deng S, May BH, et al. Plant extracts for the topical management of psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;169(4):769-782.
A2. Lin YK, Chang YC, et al. A Chinese herb, indigo naturalis, extracted in oil (Lindioil) used topically to treat psoriatic nails: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jun;151(6):672-674.
A3. Farahnik B, Sharma D, et al. Topical botanical agents for the treatment of psoriasis: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Aug;18(4):451-468.
A4. Cheng HM, Wu YC, et al. Clinical efficacy and IL-17 targeting mechanism of Indigo naturalis as a topical agent in moderate psoriasis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Sep 2;17(1):439.
B1. Matsuno Y, Hirano A, et al. Possible association of phlebitis-induced colitis with indigo naturalis. Gastroenterology. 2018 Aug;155(2):576-577.
B2. Nishio M, Hirooka K, et al. Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with the chinese herb indigo naturalis for ulcerative colitis: it may be reversible. Gastroenterology. 2018 Aug;155(2):577-578.
B3. Kondo S, Araki T, et al. Colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai in patients with ulcerative colitis: a report of two cases. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2018 Aug;11(4):268-272.
C. Ulcerative Colitis
C1. Naganuma M, Sugimoto S, et al. Efficacy of indigo naturalis in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2018;154(4):935-947.