A. A. Alzheimer Disease
A1. Amenta F, Carotenuto A, et al. The ASCOMALVA trial: association between the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the cholinergic precursor choline alphoscerate in Alzheimer’s disease with cerebrovascular injury: interim results. J Neurol Sci. 2012;322(1-2):96-101.
A2. Carotenuto A, Rea R, et al. The Effect of the Association between Donepezil and Choline Alphoscerate on Behavioral Disturbances in Alzheimer’s Disease: Interim Results of the ASCOMALVA Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;56(2):805-815.
B. B. Bipolar Disorder
B1. B1. Sylvia LG, Peters AT, et al. Nutrient-based therapies for bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Psychother Psychosom. 2013;82(1):10-19.
C1. Sun S, Li X, et al. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 19;6:35547.
D. D. Cognitive Function
D1. Lewis JE, Melillo AB, et al. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial of dietary supplementation on cognitive and immune functioning in healthy older adults. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Feb 4;14:43.
E. E. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
E1. Wozniak JR, Fuglestad AJ, et al. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(5):1113-1125.
E2. Nguyen TT, Risbud RD, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of choline supplementation in school-aged children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;104(6):1683-1692.
F. Immune Function
F1. Wozniak JR, Fuglestad AJ, et al. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders has high feasibility and tolerability. Nutr Res. 2013 Nov;33(11):897-904.
G. G. Infant Information Processing Speed
G1. Caudill MA, Strupp BJ, et al. Maternal choline supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy improves infant information processing speed: a randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding study. FASEB J. 2018 Apr;32(4):2172-2180.
H. H. Safety
H1. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, et al. Dietary Reference Intakes: the new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998 Jun;98(6):699-706.