A1. Chan AW, Lee A, et al. Tai chi Qigong improves lung functions and activity tolerance in COPD clients: a single blind, randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2011 Feb;19(1):3-1.
A2. Ng BH, Tsang HW, et al. Functional and psychosocial effects of health qigong in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Mar;17(3):243-251.
A3. Leung RW, McKeough ZJ, et al. Short-form Sun-style t’ai chi as exercise training modality in people with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2013 May;41(5):1051-1057.
A4. Chan AW, Lee A, et al. The sustaining effects of Tai chi Qigong on physiological health for COPD patients: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2013 Dec;21(6):585-594.
A5. Ding M, Zhang W, et al. Effectiveness of t’ai chi and qigong on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Feb;20(2):79-86.
A6. Xiao CM, Zhuang YC. Efficacy of Liuzijue qigong in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in remission. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Jul;63(7):1420-1425.
A7. Ngai SP, Jones AY, et al. Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 7;(6):CD009953.
A8. Guo JB, Chen BL, et al. Tai Chi for improving cardiopulmonary function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2016 Aug;30(8):750-764.
A9. Luo X, Zhang J, et al. The effects of traditional Chinese exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 2;11(9):e0161564.
Herbs and Supplements
B1. Grandjean EM, Berthet P, Ruffmann R, et al. Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2000;22:209-221.
B2. Decramer M, Rutten-van Molken M, Dekhuijzen PN, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Bronchitis Randomized on NAC Cost-Utility Study, BRONCUS): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:1552-1560.
B3. Fuld JP, Kilduff LP, Neder JA, et al. Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2005;60:531-537.
B4. Faager G, Soderlund K, Skold CM, et al. Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2006;1:445-453.
B5. Deacon SJ, Vincent EE, Greenhaff PL, et al. Randomised controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr 17.
B6. Worth H, Schacher C, et al. Concomitant therapy with Cineole (Eucalyptole) reduces exacerbations in COPD: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Respir Res. 2009 Jul 22;10:69.
B7. Al-Ghimlas F, Todd DC. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2010 Jul;15(5):785-795.
B8. An X, Zhang AL, et al. Oral ginseng formulae for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Respir Med. 2011 Feb;105(2):165-176.
B9. Matthys H, Pliskevich DA, et al. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Eps 7630 in adults with COPD. Respir Med. 2013; 107(5): 691-701.
B10. Edwards L, Shirtcliffe P, et al. Use of nebulised magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD in adults: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Thorax. 2013 Apr;68(4):338-343.
B11. Tse HN, Raiteri L, et al. High-dose N-acetylcysteine in stable COPD: the 1-year, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled HIACE study. Chest. 2013 Jul;144(1):106-118.
B12. Chen X, May B, et al. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 12;9(3):e91830.
B13. Zheng JP, Wen FQ, et al. Twice daily N-acetylcysteine 600 mg for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PANTHEON): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Mar;2(3):187-194.
B14. Nouira S, Bouida W, et al. Magnesium sulfate versus ipratropium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: a randomized trial. Am J Ther. 2014 May-Jun;21(3):152-158.
B15. Shen Y, Cai W, et al. Effect of high/low dose N-acetylcysteine on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. COPD. 2014 Jun;11(3):351-358.
B16. Wang G, Liu B, et al. Effects of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of moderate to severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 13;9(8):e103168.
B17. Tse HN, Raiteri L, et al. Benefits of high-dose N-acetylcysteine to exacerbation-prone patients with COPD. Chest. 2014 Sep;146(3):611-623.
B18. Poole P, Chong J, et al. Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 29;(7):CD001287.
B19. Cazzola M, Calzetta, et al. Influence of N-acetylcysteine on chronic bronchitis or COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis. Eur Respir Rev. 2015 Sep;24(137):451-461.
B20. Chen Y, Shergis JL, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the herbal formula Buzhong Yiqi Tang for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Complement Ther Med. 2016 Dec;29:94-108.
B21. Fowdar K, Chen H, et al. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Heart Lung. 2017 Mar-Apr;46(2):120-128.
B22. Cazzola M, Rogliani P, et al. Impact of mucolytic agents on COPD exacerbations: a pair-wise and network meta-analysis. COPD. 2017 Oct;14(5):552-563.
B23. De Benedetto F, Pastorelli R, et al. Supplementation with Qter(®) and Creatine improves functional performance in COPD patients on long term oxygen therapy. Respir Med. 2018 Sep;142:86-93.
C1. Zanotti E, Berardinelli P, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment effectiveness in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Feb-Apr;20(1-2):16-22.
C2. Suzuki M, Muro S, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acupuncture in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): the COPD-acupuncture trial (CAT). Arch Intern Med. 2012 Jun 11;172(11):878-886.
C3. Coyle ME, Shergis JL, et al. Acupuncture therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Altern Ther Health med. 2014 Nov-Dec;20(6):10-23.
C4. Feng J, Wang X, et al. Acupuncture for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct;95(40):e4879.