Liver failure is when the liver does not work well. The liver helps the body remove toxins, process food, and store energy.
Liver failure may be:
Liver failure can be fatal.
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Acute liver failure is often caused by medicines, toxins, or viruses that harm the liver.
Chronic liver failure is often caused by medical problems such as:
Things that raise the risk of acute liver failure are:
Things that raise the risk of chronic liver failure are:
Symptoms of acute liver failure begin quickly. Symptoms of chronic liver failure worsen over time.
Symptoms may be:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. The doctor may ask about medicines, supplements, and alcohol use. A physical exam will be done.
Blood and urine tests will help to show how well the liver is working.
Images may be needed to check for signs of liver damage. This can be done with:
A liver biopsy may be done. A sample of liver tissue is taken and tested. It will look for causes of liver failure.
Other tests may be done to check for damage to the brain.
Treatment depends on the cause and type of liver failure. Acute liver failure needs supportive care in the hospital. Fast treatment can be life-saving.
Options may be:
Medicine that caused liver failure will be stopped and/or changed. Medicines may be given to:
Certain foods are harder on the liver. Diet changes and supplements may be needed.
Alcohol is also damaging to the liver. Alcohol use will need to be stopped. Treatment may be needed for alcohol and drug use problems.
To help reduce the risk of liver damage:
American Liver Foundation
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Canadian Liver Foundation
Acute liver failure. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/acute-liver-failure. Accessed August 10, 2021.
Acute liver failure. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hepatic-and-biliary-disorders/approach-to-the-patient-with-liver-disease/acute-liver-failure. Accessed August 10, 2021.
Sivell C. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a silent epidemic. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2019;42(5):428-434.
Last reviewed July 2021 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD
Last Updated: 8/10/2021