Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It has a C or S shape instead of being a straight line from the neck to the buttocks.
Adult scoliosis may be a progression of childhood scoliosis or something that happens later in life.
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Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of this problem in adults. This means there is no known cause. It can result in premature aging of the spine. This can worsen the curvature.
Scoliosis that starts in adulthood may be from wear and tear injuries of the spine, also known as degenerative diseases.
Scoliosis that starts in adulthood is more common in people who are 60 years of age and older. It may be present with other problems, such as:
A person may have hips or shoulders that are not even. People with severe curves may lean forward or to one side to try to stand upright.
Other problems depend on where the curve is and its severity. Some people may not have problems. Others may have:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the spine.
Images of the spine may be needed. This can be done with:
People without symptoms may not need treatment. They may only be watched for any changes.
For others, the goal of treatment is to ease symptoms and stop the curve from worsening. Choices are:
People who are not helped by these methods may need surgery. A spinal fusion connects two or more bones of the spine with rods or metal plates. This can help straighten and ease pressure on the spine.
There are no current guidelines to prevent this health problem.
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Scoliosis Research Society
Canadian Spine Society
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Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, et al, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Apr 4;166(7):514-530.
Scoliosis in adults. Hospital for Special Surgery website. Available at: https://www.hss.edu/conditions_scoliosis-adults-overview.asp. Accessed February 2, 2021.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Teresa Briedwell, PT, DPT, OCS, CSCS