How to Say It: u-STA-shi-an tube dis-FUNC-shin
Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is when the tube does not open when swallowing or yawning. This tube connects the middle ear to the back of the nose and upper throat. Its purpose is to equalize air pressure in the middle ear with the pressure outside it. This does not happen with ETD.
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ETD happens when the eustachian tube is blocked or not working as it should. Causes may be:
This problem is more common in children. Other things that may raise the risk are:
Problems may be:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the ears. Hearing tests may be done.
You may need to see a doctor who treats the ears, nose, and throat.
Most people get better without treatment. Things like swallowing, yawning, or chewing may help ease pressure.
People who do not improve or have severe symptoms may need treatment. The goal is to ease pressure. Medicines may be given, such as:
Rarely, people who are not helped by these methods may need a myringotomy. An incision is made in the eardrum to allow the pressure to equalize and fluid to drain.
Managing things like allergies and colds may lower the risk.
The risk may be lowered when traveling by plane by:
American Hearing Research Foundation
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Canadian Hearing Society
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Eustachian tube dysfunction. Patient website. Available at: https://patient.info/ears-nose-throat-mouth/earache-ear-pain/eustachian-tube-dysfunction. Accessed February 10, 2021.
Nasopharyngeal cancer treatment (Adult). National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/patient/adult/nasopharyngeal-treatment-pdq. Accessed February 10, 2021.
Otitis media with effusion (OME). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/otitis-media-with-effusion-ome. Accessed February 10, 2021.
Schilder AG, Chonmaitree T, et al. Otitis media. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016 Sep 8;2:16063.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board
James P. Cornell, MD
Last Updated: 2/10/2021