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A corneal ulcer is a sore on the cornea. The cornea is the dome that covers the front of the eye. A healthy cornea protects the inside of the eye and guides light into the eye.
If left untreated, corneal ulcers can lead to vision loss.
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A corneal ulcer happens when the surface of the cornea breaks down. The breakdown may be caused by:
Corneal ulcers are more common in farm workers in tropical climates. Other things that raise the risk are:
Corneal ulcer causes symptoms in the eye, such as:
If an infection is present, there may also be a fever.
The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. An eye exam will be done. The doctor may look at the eye with a slit lamp. This may be enough to make the diagnosis.
Other tests may be done to find the cause. They may include
Early treatment can help prevent more problems and loss of vision. Infections from bacteria need care right away and sometimes a hospital stay.
Medicines may be given as eyedrops, pills or injections. They may be:
Steroid medicine is sometimes used to lower the risk of scarring. It depends on the cause of the ulcer.
Underlying problems, such as dry eye or immune problems, may also be treated.
Severe damage or injury to the cornea will decrease vision. Surgery may be needed to repair or replace the cornea.
The risk of a corneal ulcer may be lowered by:
American Academy of Ophthalmology
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Canadian Ophthalmological Society
Basics of bacterial keratitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/contactlenses/bacterial-keratitis.html. Accessed July 29, 2021.
Corneal ulcer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/corneal-ulcer. Accessed July 29, 2021.
Corneal Ulcer. Merck Manual Professional version. Available at:https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/eye-disorders/corneal-disorders/corneal-ulcer . Accessed July 29, 2021.
Cunningham ET Jr, Acharya NR, et al. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016;24(5):479-81.
What is a corneal ulcer (keratitis)? American Academy of Ophthalmology website. Available at: https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/corneal-ulcer . Accessed July 29, 2021.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Dan Ostrovsky Last Updated: 7/29/2021