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A mood disorder is a condition with serious mood changes. It can affect work, school, and social life.
The exact cause of mood disorders is not known. They are likely due to physical and mental traits. They can also come from changes in the brain.
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Mood disorders are more common in women. However, they also occur in men.
Things that may raise the risk are:
Symptoms can vary. They may be:
Sometimes there are physical symptoms. Examples are aches and pains that cannot be explained.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam may be done. The doctor may give questionnaires. They will focus on mental health.
The doctor may want to rule out other conditions first. It may take time to diagnose a mood disorder.
The goal is to ease symptoms and improve function. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition. Severe mood disorders may need hospital care. Care is urgent if someone might hurt themselves or others.
A number of treatments may be used. Options may be:
Sometimes symptoms last, despite treatment. If symptoms are severe and lasting, options may be:
There are no current guidelines to prevent mood disorders. However, early treatment may help reduce how severe they are.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance
Mental Health America
Canadian Mental Health Association
Canadian Psychiatric Association
Depression in older adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/depression-in-older-adults. Accessed March 12, 2021.
Major depressive disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/major-depressive-disorder-mdd. Accessed March 12, 2021.
Mood disorders. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/mood-disorders. Accessed March 12, 2021.
Overview of mood disorders. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/mental_health_disorders/overview_of_mood_disorders_85,P00759. Accessed March 12, 2021.
Rakofsky J, Rapaport M. Mood disorders. continuum. Behavioral Neurology and Psychiatry. 2018 ;24(3):804-827.
Last reviewed January 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD Last Updated: 3/12/2021