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Hypokalemia is a low level of potassium in the blood. Potassium is a mineral. It helps the heart, kidneys, and other organs to work well. Low levels can lead to problems with nerves and muscles. It can also cause an irregular heart rate.
Potassium enters the body through food and digestion. It passes out of the blood through the kidneys. Hypokalemia occurs when the body does not absorb enough potassium. This can happen when the kidneys remove too much of it. It can also happen when it moves from the blood into the cells.
Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:
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There may be no symptoms in the early stages. When they happen, they may be:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
This condition is diagnosed with blood and urine tests. An ECG may be given to test the electrical activity of the heart. More tests may be done to look for a cause.
Underlying causes will need to be treated. The goal is to raise the potassium level in the body. Options may be:
To help lower the risk of hypokalemia:
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
The Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hypokalemia. NORD—National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/hypokalemia. Accessed January 6, 2021.
Hypokalemia—approach to the patient. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/hypokalemia-approach-to-the-patient .Accessed Januray 6, 2021.
Tinawi M. Hypokalemia: a practical approach to diagnosis and treatment. Archives of Clinical and Biomedical Research 4 (2020): 048-066.
Last reviewed February 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD Last Updated: 1/6/2021