Stomach cancer is the growth of cancer cells in the stomach. The stomach is the organ in the upper belly that receives food. Different types of cancer are:
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Cancer happens when cells divide without control or order. These cells grow together to form a tumor. They can invade and damage nearby tissues. They can also spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear what causes changes in the cells. It is likely a combination of genes and environment.
Stomach cancer is more common in men. It is also more common in people from eastern Asia, eastern Europe, and South America. Other things that may raise the risk are:
In some people, stomach cancer may have no symptoms. Others may have:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical health. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may include:
Imaging tests will be used to look for cancer or spreading of the cancer. They may include:
The exam and test results are used to diagnose the cancer. They are also used for staging. Staging outlines how far and fast cancer has spread.
Cancer treatment depends on the stage and type of cancer. A combination of therapies may be used.
Options may include:
The risk of stomach cancer may be reduced by:
Some people have a very high risk of stomach cancer due to genes. For them, stomach removal (gastrectomy) may be an option.
American Cancer Society
National Cancer Institute
BC Cancer Agency
Canadian Cancer Society
Gastric adenocarcinoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/gastric-adenocarcinoma. Accessed March 21, 2021.
General information about gastric cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/stomach/patient/stomach-treatment-pdq#section/_1. Accessed March 21, 2021.
Kamboj AK, Cotter TG, et al. Helicobacter pylori: the past, present, and future in management. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017;92(4):599-604.
Ménétrier disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/menetriers-disease. Accessed March 21, 2021.
Stomach cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/stomach-cancer.html. Accessed March 21, 2021.
Last reviewed January 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP Last Updated: 3/21/2021