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Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage associated with diabetes. It can result in damage to any nerve in the body. The types of neuropathy include:
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Diabetic neuropathy is likely caused by a combination of factors, including:
This condition is more common in older adults.
Factors that may increase your risk of diabetic neuropathy include:
Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy may include:
If you have diabetic neuropathy, you are at increased risk for developing other types of neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
Diabetic neuropathy can lead to serious complications, including foot ulcers, infection, and limb loss.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A foot exam will also be done.
Your nerve function may be tested, especially if you have muscle weakness. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with an ultrasound.
Your nerves may need to be tested. This can be done with a biopsy.
Treatment may include:
It is important to regularly monitor blood glucose levels. Meal planning, exercise, and/or medications can help.
Footcare will be needed to avoid ulcers. The nerves in the feet are the ones most often affected by neuropathy. This care will involve regular visits to a foot doctor and careful cleaning, inspection, moisturizing, and grooming of the feet. In addition, always wear well-fitting shoes and thick, soft, seamless socks to help protect your feet from injuries.
Nerve decompression surgery may be done to reduce pain.
Other treatments will depend on symptoms.
The best way to prevent diabetic neuropathy is to regularly monitor and manage your blood glucose levels. Your doctor can instruct you about how often to check your levels and what the numbers mean.
American Diabetes Association
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Canadian Diabetes Association
Diabetic neuropathies: the nerve damage of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/diabetic-neuropathies-nerve-damage-diabetes/Pages/diabetic-neuropathies-nerve-damage.aspx. Updated November 2013. Accessed September 19, 2017.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115259/Diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy. Updated July 27, 2017. Accessed August 24, 2017.
Izenberg A, Perkins BA, Bril V. Diabetic neuropathies. Semin Neurol. 2015 Aug;35(4):424-30.
Russell J, Zilliox L. Diabetic neuropathies. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014 Oct;20(5 Peripheral Nervous System Disorders):1226-40.
Types of peripheral neuropathy: pre-diabetic/diabetic University of Chicago Center for Peripheral Neuropathy website. Available at: http://peripheralneuropathycenter.uchicago.edu/learnaboutpn/typesofpn/diabetes/diabetes.shtml. Updated May 16, 2010. Accessed September 19, 2017.
2/4/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115259/Diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy: Dubinsky RM, Miyasaki J. Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2010;74(2):173-176.
6/16/2015 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115259/Diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy: Macaré van Maurik JF, Oomen RT, et al. The effect of lower extremity nerve decompression on health-related quality of life and perception of pain in patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy: a prospective randomized trial. Diabet Med. 2015;32(6):803-809.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 8/24/2017