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Definition

Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and tissue just below it. The infection may occur anywhere on the body. However, it is most common on the lower legs. Treatment can help prevent it from spreading to other areas of the body.

Causes

Cellulitis is caused by bacteria. The bacteria may normally live on top of the skin or come from other sources. It enters the skin through a cut or injury on the skin surface. Once inside the skin, the bacteria can grow and cause infection.

Risk Factors

Things that increase the risk of cellulitis are:

Puncture Wound
Puncture Wound

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Symptoms

Symptoms may be:

  • Fever and chills
  • Skin that is:
    • Red and feels hot
    • Painful or tender
    • Swollen
    • Dimpled
    • Streaked—redness is spreading
  • Confusion
  • Fast heartbeat or fast breathing

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may diagnose cellulitis based on how the skin looks. The outer edge of the redness may be marked. This will help to see if the infection spreads.

The doctor may also do blood tests. Fluid from the area may also be tested. This is to find out what bacteria is causing the problem.

Treatment

The goal is to get rid of the infection and manage pain. Treatment may last 5 to 10 days. Most cellulitis will clear up after 1 to 2 weeks of treatment.

Hospital care may be needed for:

  • Severe cellulitis
  • Diabetes or a weak immune system
  • An infection on the face

Treatment may be:

  • Medicine, such as:
    • Antibiotics—to clear the infection
    • Antifungals, by mouth or applied to the skin—for fungal infections
    • Pain medicine
  • Supportive care, such as:
    • Keeping the area raised—to help move fluids out and speed healing
    • Protecting the skin—keeping the area clean and bandaged

Prevention

The risk of cellulitis may be reduced by:

  • Keeping skin clean and dry
  • Moisturizing dry skin
  • Treating skin conditions
  • Taking precautions to avoid skin injuries
RESOURCES:

American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.aad.org

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
https://www.niaid.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCE;

Canadian Dermatology Association
https://dermatology.ca

Health Canada
http://www.canada.ca

REFERENCES:

Cellulitis. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/rashes/cellulitis. Accessed January 29, 2021.

Cellulitis. DermNet New Zealand website. Available at: https://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/cellulitis. Accessed January 29, 2021.

Cellulitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116794/Cellulitis. Accessed January 29, 2021.

Cellulitis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic-disorders/bacterial-skin-infections/cellulitis. Accessed March 29, 2021.

Linder KA, Malani PN. Cellulitis. JAMA. 2017;317(20):2142.

Stevens DL, Bisno AL, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(2):147-159.

Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Shawna Grubb, RN  Last Updated: 3/29/2021