This procedure is done to repair a detached retina in the eye. The retina is a thin sheet made of light-sensitive nerve tissue and blood vessels that line the back of the eye. The sensory layer of the retina receives images and sends them to the brain. This layer can be pulled away (detached) from its normal position. This will result in a loss of vision. The retina often detaches from the back of the eye in a manner similar to wallpaper peeling off a wall. The detachment is usually preceded by a hole or tear in the retina. It may also be preceded by inflammation or infection of the area behind the eye.
This procedure is done to place the retina back into its proper position. It is used to try to restore vision.
If your vision was good before the detachment, a successful operation usually restores vision to good levels. If vision was poor before the detachment, final visual return may be slow and remain incomplete after surgery. A peripheral retinal detachment will likely heal quicker than one that involves the macula (central retina) or a total detachment.
The longer the retina has been detached, the less likely it is that vision will be restored.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
You will have a comprehensive eye exam, likely including some or all of the following:
You may also have a general medical exam prior to your surgery.
Leading up to your procedure:
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to 1 week before the procedure.
You may have either a local or general anesthetic. Local anesthesia will be injected and numb the area. General anesthesia will make you sleep. The type of anesthesia used will depend on the type of procedure, your age, and other factors.
There are several surgical options to repair retinal detachment. The most common are:
A flexible silicone band will be permanently stitched to the outside surface of the back of the eye. This is done underneath the skin of the eye. You would never see the band. This band acts like a belt. It buckles the area of the detachment or retinal tear to the wall of the eye. This procedure has a high success rate in re-attaching the retina. Local or general anesthesia is used.
A gas bubble will be injected into the cavity of the eye. The pressure will force the retina back into position. You will often need to lie in a special position to keep the gas bubble in place. The retina will usually re-attach within several days. A laser (heat) or cryotherapy (cold) will help seal the retina back into place.
This method generally has a high success rate. It is not suitable for all types of detachment. Local anesthesia is sometimes used. The main benefit of this procedure is that it can be done in the office with anesthetic eye drops.
This method may be needed for more complicated retinal detachments. It may also be used if the procedures described above are not successful. The fluid in the eye as well as any scar tissue will be removed. The fluid will then be replaced with a gas bubble or specialized oil known as silicone oil. The bubble or oil will help push the retina back against the eye wall. Retinal breaks will then be sealed with a laser or cryotherapy. A scleral buckle procedure is often done at the same time. Local or general anesthesia is used.
Between 1-4 hours
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
You can usually go home the same day as the surgery.
Your eye will be covered with a bandage and metal shield. The final visual result may not be known for 1-2 years after surgery. Home care includes pain management and preventing infection. In general:
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Optometric Association
Eye Smart—American Academy of Ophthalmology
Canadian Ophthalmological Society
Facts About Retinal Detachment. National Eye Institute website. Available at: https://nei.nih.gov/health/retinaldetach/retinaldetach. October 2009. Accessed December 15, 2017.
Retinal Detachment. Digital Journal of Ophthalmology website. Available at: http://www.djo.harvard.edu/site.php?url=/patients/pi/426. Updated October 15, 2002. Accessed December 15, 2017.
Retinal detachment. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113694/Retinal-detachment. Updated June 10, 2015. Accessed December 15, 2017.
Retinal detachment: torn or detached retina treatment. Eye Smart—American Academy of Ophthalmology Eye Smart website. Available at: http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/detached-torn-retina/treatment.cfm. Updated September 1, 2013. Accessed December 15, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 12/20/2014