Anxiety is a feeling of dread, tension, and unease. An anxiety disorder is when these feelings are more intense than they should be or last for long periods of time. It may also happen even if there is no specific cause. An anxiety disorder also cause problems in day to day life and relationships.
The most common types of anxiety disorders are:
The cause of anxiety is not clear. Trauma, regular stress, or genetics may all play a role. They may cause a change in how the brain reacts to stress. Other medical issues and medicine may also play a role.
Things that may increase the risk of an anxiety disorders are:
An anxiety disorder can cause:
It can also cause physical problems such as:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical and exam will be done. The doctor will also ask questions about emotional health. It is important to be honest and open with the doctor. Many mental health disorders go untreated because people do not ask for help. An anxiety disorder may be suspected based on answers to these questions.
Other tests may be done if there could be another cause of anxiety. A referral may be made to a mental health professional. They can help to diagnose anxiety disorder or other mental health issues.
Anxiety disorders can be managed. Treatment can help to lower the effect on day to day life. The goal is to reduce stress and improve the reaction to it. A treatment plan may include a mix of the following:
Physical health can play an important role. Good overall health can improve mood. This may include getting enough sleep, choosing healthy foods, and exercise. Social support also plays an important role.
Food or drink with caffeine, drugs, and alcohol can also make anxiety worse.
When possible stress should be avoided. Other steps can help to decrease the response to stress. Steps may include:
Therapy will address thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and better understand how it affects day to day life. It can also help you work through traumas and conflicts. There are different types of therapy. A care team will help to find which type is best for each persons needs. Therapy may change over time.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one type of therapy. It focuses on negative thought patterns and behaviors. Practice will help to retrain thinking to decrease reaction to stress and anxiety. CBT has been very effective in children and teens.
Medicine may help those with severe anxiety. Some medicines that are used for anxiety are:
The cause of anxiety disorders is not clear, so prevention is not know. To decrease the risk of an episode of anxiety:
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
Mental Health America
Canadian Psychiatric Association
Canadian Psychological Association
Antidepressant efficacy in generalized anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/management/antidepressant-efficacy-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder. Accessed January 31, 2021.
Anxiety disorders. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/index.shtml. Accessed January 31, 2021.
Generalized anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/generalized-anxiety-disorder. Accessed January 31, 2021.
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Last reviewed January 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD