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Measles

(Rubeola)

Definition

Measles is an infection that spreads quickly. It causes a fever and rash. It was once common in children. It is now less common in the United States due to the use of the measles vaccine.

Causes

Measles is caused by a virus. It is spread by:

  • Direct contact with nose or throat droplets of people who have measles, such as through kissing
  • Through the air, such as through coughing and sneezing (less common)

Measles can be spread:

  • 1 to 2 days before symptoms appear
  • 3 to 5 days before the rash
  • Up to 4 days after the rash

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:

  • Visiting places where measles is common
  • Not getting the measles immunization

Symptoms

Measles symptoms start 10 to 12 days after exposure. They are:

  • Fever, often high
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Pain
  • Red eyes
  • Hacking cough
  • Sore throat
  • Lack of energy
  • Very small whitish spots inside the mouth
  • Raised, itchy red to brownish rash

Symptoms improve 7 to 10 days from the start of the rash.

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. This is enough to make the diagnosis.

Treatment

Measles is caused by a virus. It cannot be treated with antibiotics.

The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms until the virus passes. Choices are:

  • Supportive care, such as gargling with warm salt water and drinking plenty of fluids
  • Medicines to ease pain, such as acetaminophen

Prevention

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent measles. It comes as a single vaccine or with:

Some people may be given a vaccine within 3 days of exposure. This can prevent or lessen symptoms.

Immune globulin may also be given to some unvaccinated people within 6 days of exposure. This is usually for infants and pregnant women.

RESOURCES:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
http://www.nfid.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society
http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca

Public Health Agency of Canada
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

REFERENCES:

Measles. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/measles. Accessed October 30, 2020.

Measles (rubeola). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/measles-rubeola.htm. Accessed October 30, 2020.

Measles. World Health Organization website. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/measles#tab=tab_1. Accessed October 30, 2020.

Moss WJ. Measles. Lancet. 2017 Dec 2;390(10111):2490-2502.

Last reviewed September 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board James P. Cornell, MD  Last Updated: 4/30/2021