Plasmapheresis is a procedure to exchange plasma in the blood. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. It does not have any cells. The plasma is removed. Then, fresh plasma or a plasma substitute is added back to the blood.
Plasmapheresis takes out certain proteins from the plasma. These proteins mistakenly attack the body’s own healthy cells. This procedure also takes out toxins or other substances from the blood.
Plasmapheresis is used to treat:
Problems are rare, but all procedures have some risk. The doctor will go over problems that could happen, such as:
The doctor may talk to you about:
Anesthesia is not needed for this procedure.
Two needles attached to a tube will be placed into veins. They may be placed in different parts of the body. A long duration catheter will be inserted if the veins are too small. It will be placed in the shoulder or groin area.
Blood will be taken out of the body through one of the tubes. It will then go into a special machine. The machine separates the blood cells and plasma. The blood cells are then mixed with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. The new mixed blood will then be returned to the body through the other tube.
There may be a sting when the needles are inserted.
Most can go home the same day. If there are problems, you may need to stay longer.
You may feel better within days or weeks. It depends on the problems you were having. Your doctor will let you know how often you will need to have this done.
Call your doctor if you are not feeling better or you have:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Muscular Dystrophy Association
Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America
Canadian Hemophilia Society
Muscular Dystrophy Canada
Myasthenia gravis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/myasthenia-gravis. Accessed September 30, 2021.
Plasmapheresis. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/transplant/programs/kidney/incompatible/plasmapheresis.html. Accessed September 30, 2021.
Plasmapheresis. National Multiple Sclerosis Society website. Available at: https://www.nationalmssociety.org/Treating-MS/Managing-Relapses/Plasmapheresis. Accessed September 30, 2021.
Therapeutic plasma exchange. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/procedure/therapeutic-plasma-exchange. Accessed September 30, 2021.
Walters G. Role of therapeutic plasmapheresis in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016;31(2):217-25.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD Last Updated: 9/30/2021