Hematuria is blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood.
There are 2 kinds of hematuria:
- Microscopic hematuria—small amount of blood that is not visible to the naked eye
- Gross hematuria—enough blood to make urine appear red or tea-colored
In some cases, the cause of hematuria is never found. The full list of known causes is lengthy. Some of the more common causes include:
- Injury to the abdomen, pelvis, or internal organs of the urinary tract
- Vigorous exercise—resolves with rest
- Urinary tract infection or kidney infection
- Cancer of the prostate, kidney, or bladder
- Kidney disease
- Kidney stones
- Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia
- Certain congenital diseases such as polycystic kidneys
- Radiation of the pelvis for cancer treatment
- Certain medications
Factors that may increase your risk of hematuria include:
- Medications such as certain antibiotics and pain medications
- Family history of kidney problems
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You may not have any other symptoms.
You may also have symptoms related to the cause. For example, kidney stones can cause pain in the side, belly, or groin.
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor any time you notice blood in your urine.
You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a specialist.
To help find a cause, your doctor may do:
- Urine tests
- Blood tests
Images of your pelvic and belly structures may be taken with:
Treatment will depend on the cause. Some will not need treatment. Symptoms may also resolve on their own.
Other may need medicine or surgery.
Prevention will depend on the cause.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Kidney Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Gross hematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T909566/Gross-hematuria-approach-to-the-adult. Updated June 27, 2016. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Hematuria in children. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/hematuria. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Hematuria in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T576483/Hematuria-in-children. Updated June 16, 2017. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Microhematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed Plus websithttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T909568/Microhematuria-approach-to-the-adult. Updated June 21, 2017. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Thaller TR, Wang LP. Evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(4):1143-1152.
Urination problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/health-tools/search-by-symptom/urination-problems.html. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD Last Updated: 9/3/2014