How to Say It: LIE-o-my-o-sar-KOH-ma
Leiomyosarcoma is a rare soft tissue cancer. The cancer cells are in smooth muscle. Smooth muscle is found throughout the body. These muscles help organs, blood vessels, and skin to function.
Leiomyosarcoma can develop in any smooth muscle. It is most common in the muscle of the uterus, abdomen, and pelvis.
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Cancer happens when cells divide without control or order. These cells grow together to form a tumor. They can invade and damage nearby tissues. They can also spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear what causes changes in the cells. It is likely a combination of genes and environment.
Things that raise the risk of leiomyosarcoma are:
There are often no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they vary depending on the site, size, and growth of the tumor. They may be:
- A swelling or lump
- Belly bloating
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding
- Problems breathing
- Numbness or muscle weakness
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the affected area.
Tests may include:
- Blood tests
- Imaging tests, such as:
- A biopsy—a sample of tissue will be taken and tested
Imaging tests will help show where the cancer is and how far it has spread.
Biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. The exam and test results will be used for staging. This will outline how far and fast the cancer has spread.
The goal is to remove the cancer. Treatment depends on the site, size, grade, and stage of the cancer. It also depends on the person's health and age. A combination of treatments may be used. Options may include:
There are no current guidelines to prevent leiomyosarcoma.
Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
Sarcoma Cancer Foundation of Canada
Juhasz-Böss I, Gabriel L, et al. Uterine leiomyosarcoma. Oncol Res Treat. 2018;41(11):680-686.
Leiomyosarcoma. The Liddy Shriver Sarcoma Initiative website. Available at: http://sarcomahelp.org/leiomyosarcoma.html. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Leiomyosarcomas (LMS). MacMillian Cancer Support website. Available at: https://www.macmillan.org.uk/information-and-support/soft-tissue-sarcomas/leiomyosarcomas. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Sarcoma and bone cancer types. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.dana-farber.org/sarcoma-and-bone-cancer-treatment-center/cancer-types-and-programs. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Uterine leiomyosarcoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/uterine-leiomyosarcoma. Accessed March 18, 2021.
Last reviewed January 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP Last Last updated: 3/18/2021