Reactive Airway Disease, Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome, Occupational Asthma
Bronchospasm is narrowing of the airways due to a trigger. It is a symptom, not a diagnosis.
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The narrow airway is caused by muscle spasms around the airway. There is also swelling and increased mucus in the airway. It is triggered by allergens, infections, cold air, or chemicals. The triggers vary from person to person.
It is not clear what causes the tissue to overreact. It may be due to environment, genes, and biology.
The risk of bronchospasm is higher in people who have:
- A family history of reactive airway disease or asthma
Jobs with exposure to chemicals, smoke, fumes, or vapors. This may include:
- Fire fighters, police, and other emergency services workers
- Exposure to cigarette smoke
Symptoms of bronchospasm may be:
- Tightness in the chest
- Problems breathing
The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may ask about things that might have triggered symptoms.
Tests may be done to look for allergies, infections, lung problems, or chemical exposures.
The goal is to ease swelling and symptoms. One or more medicines may be used, such as:
- Bronchodilators—to open the airways
- Corticosteroids—to ease inflammation
- Mast cell stabilizers or leukotriene inhibitors—to prevent inflammation
Bronchospasms cannot always be prevented. Finding triggers can stop more events. Triggers can be avoided or managed. Steps will depend on the trigger or allergy.
American Academy of Asthma & Immunology
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
The Asthma Society of Canada
Asthma in adults and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/asthma-in-adults-and-adolescents. Accessed July 27, 2021.
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Lau A, Tarlo SM. Update on the management of occupational asthma and work-exacerbated asthma. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2019;11(2):188-200.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and irritant-induced asthma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/reactive-airways-dysfunction-syndrome-and-irritant-induced-asthma. Accessed July 27, 2021.
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Health Navigator New Zealand website. Available at: https://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/health-a-z/r/reactive-airways-dysfunction-syndrome/. Accessed July 27, 2021.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Dan Ostrovsky, MD Last Updated: 7/27/2021