A phobia is an intense fear to an object or situation. There are three main groups of phobias:
The cause is not known. Genetics, the environment, and stressors may play a role.
Phobias are more common in women. Other things that may raise the risk are:
- Having a parent, sibling, or child with a phobia
- Going through a stressful event, such as trauma or illness
Symptoms happen when a person is exposed to the object or situation that they fear. The fear may become more intense if the person cannot easily get away from it.
Mental health problems may be:
- Intense feelings of panic and worry when exposed to the phobia
- Fear of getting hurt, losing control, going crazy, or dying
- Feelings of unreality or being detached from one's body
- Knowing that the fear is not normal, but not being able to control the reaction
- Wanting to flee from the fear or taking extreme steps to avoid it
- A fear that gets in the way of daily activities
Physical problems may be:
- Racing, pounding, or skipping heartbeat
- Problems breathing
- Chest pain
- Lightheadedness, feeling faint
- Tingling or numbness in parts of the body
- Hot or cold flashes
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You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This is often enough to make the diagnosis. Tests are not needed.
The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms and improve quality of life. More than one treatment may be needed. Choices are:
Therapies that may be helpful are:
- Exposure therapy to confront one's fear in a planned and controlled way with a therapist
- Relaxation techniques to ease panic and anxiety
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy to learn strategies to change a person's beliefs and thoughts surrounding the fear
The doctor may give:
- Anti-anxiety medicines
There are no current guidelines to prevent phobias. The cause is not known.
American Psychiatric Association
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada
Canadian Psychiatric Association
Agoraphobia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/agoraphobia. Accessed September 4, 2020.
Overview of anxiety disorders. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/anxiety-and-stressor-related-disorders/overview-of-anxiety-disorders. Accessed September 4, 2020.
Phobias. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/phobias. Accessed September 4, 2020.
Social anxiety disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/social-anxiety-disorder. Accessed September 4, 2020.
Specific phobia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/specific-phobia. Accessed September 4, 2020.
Last reviewed March 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD Last Updated: 9/4/2020