Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
(DMD; Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy)
by Patricia Griffin Kellicker, BSN
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease. It causes muscle weakness that worsens over time. Before age 5, the muscles in the legs, arms, and trunk begin to weaken. Later in the disease, the heart and muscles that help you breathe weaken.
DMD is caused by a problem with genes. The problem with the gene makes it hard to make a specific protein called dystrophin. This protein is needed to keep muscles healthy.
DMD is more common in male children. A family history of DMD increases the risk of having the disease.
Symptoms of DMD may include:
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. You will be asked if there is any family history of muscle or nerve diseases. The exam will focus on your child’s muscles and signs of weakness. Your child will often be referred to a specialist.
DMD may be suspected based on symptoms and family history. It can be confirmed with:
Other tests may be needed to rule out other causes with similar symptoms.
Talk with your doctor about the best plan for your child. Your child will need different treatment and support as the disease progresses. Options include the following:
Therapy plays a large role in DMD. Your child will work with a therapist to try to keep muscles strong.
The disease also causes muscle shortening and tightening. It will make it difficult to move. The therapist will focus on preventing this with range of motion exercises.
Scoliosis is common in DMD. Exercises can help to keep the back as straight as possible.
Braces are used to keep the legs straight. They can also prevent tightening of joints like hands. A walker and wheelchair may be needed later when the leg muscles become too weak to walk.
Steroid medication, like prednisone, may be prescribed. This can help to improve muscle strength and slow muscle weakening.
Steroids can also weaken bones. Vitamin D and calcium supplements may be given to improve bone strength. If heart problems exist, medications may be given to slow the damage.
As the disease progresses, the muscles that support breathing may weaken. A ventilator may be needed. It will deliver air through a mask or tube. At later stages a hole may be made in the throat to place a trach tube.
Surgery is sometimes used to treat symptoms of DMD. It may help to release tight muscles or relieve curves in the back.
There are no known guidelines to prevent DMD.
Muscular Dystrophy Association
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Muscle Dystrophy Canada
Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dyname.... Updated October 30, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2018.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Muscular Dystrophy website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated February 9, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2018.
Last reviewed June 2018 by Laura Lei-Rivera, PT, DPT, GCS
Last Updated: 12/27/2018
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.