Intramuscular Injection (Self-injection)
(IM Injection; Injection, IM; Injection, Intramuscular)
An intramuscular (IM) injection is a shot. The needle goes into the muscle to deliver medicine. IM injections are deeper than injections given under the skin. This is usually done by a doctor or nurse. Sometimes, a person may be taught how to inject themselves.
A needle passes through skin and fat layers into the muscle fibers to deliver medication.
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Reasons for Procedure
Some medicines are better absorbed when given in the muscle. Other medicines may be given in the muscle if a person is unable to take them by mouth.
Some examples of medicines given using an IM injection are:
Problems are rare, but all procedures have some risk. The doctor will go over some problems that could happen, such as:
- Excess bleeding at the injection site
- Allergic reaction to the medicine
- Infection (rare)
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
- Make sure you have all of the items that you will need in front of you.
- Make sure that you have the right medication and that it has not expired.
- Wash hands with warm, soapy water before giving the injection.
- Select a site for injection. This should be an area on your body with a large muscle, such as the thigh.
- Cleanse the area with an alcohol wipe.
Description of Procedure
To inject yourself:
- Remove the needle cap.
- Smooth the skin with one hand.
- Hold the syringe the way you would a pencil. Insert the needle at a 90° angle to the skin. The needle should be completely covered by skin.
Hold the syringe with one hand. With the other, pull back the plunger to check for blood in the syringe.
- If you see blood, do not inject. Withdraw the needle and start again at a new site.
- If you do not see blood, slowly press down on the plunger until it stops.
- Remove the needle from the skin.
- If there is bleeding at the site of injection, apply a bandage.
- Immediately put the syringe and needle into a container that is puncture-proof.
- Find out what services are available in your area for disposing of biological waste.
Will It Hurt?
Depending on the medication, there is usually some discomfort at the injection site. Soreness in the muscle is also common.
Tips for minimizing pain include:
- Inject medication that is at room temperature.
- Remove all air bubbles from the syringe before the injection.
- Relax the muscles in the injection area.
- Quickly break through the skin.
- Do not change the direction of the needle as it goes in or comes out.
- Do not reuse disposable needles.
Care After Injection
Follow your doctor's instructions regarding care required for the injection site.
Call Your Doctor
Call your doctor if any of the following occur:
- Difficulty giving yourself the injection
- A lot of pain
- Medication is injected into the wrong area
- Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the injection site
- Rash or hives develop
- Difficulty breathing
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Canadian Diabetes Association
Intramuscular injection (IM). Cincinnati Children's website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/i/intramuscular-injection.
Lesson 2: Administer intramuscular injection. Brookside Associates Multimedia Edition website. Available at: http://brooksidepress.org/intramuscular/lessons/lesson-2-administer-an-intramuscular-injection.
Selecting, evaluating, and using sharps disposal containers website. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/97-111.
Last reviewed May 2020 by James Cornell, MD Last Updated: 5/11/2021