Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma
by Debra Wood, RN
Multiple myeloma develops slowly over the course of several years. The body is initially able to compensate for changes in blood so symptoms may not appear until it is in advanced stages. Symptoms depend on the blood cells affected and the location of the tumors. If you experience any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to cancer. Most of these symptoms may be caused by other, less serious health conditions. However, it is still important to discuss them with your doctor. Early detection and treatment improve outcomes for both cancer and other health conditions.
Bone pain can appear anywhere, but is most common in the back, ribs, hips, or skull. Normally, healthy bone tissue is maintained through a constant process of breaking down old bone tissue and rebuilding new tissue. Myeloma cells can boost bone destruction without increasing the rebuilding process. As a result, the bone becomes weak and easily fractured. Even small fractures in the bone can cause pain.
Bone pain can also be caused by growth of tumors.
Symptoms Related to Decreases in Normal Blood Cells
A drop in the number of normal white blood cells makes it harder for the body to fight infection. Symptoms may include:
A drop in the number of normal red blood cells is called anemia, which decreases the amount of oxygen reaching the body's tissues. Symptoms of anemia may include:
A drop in the number of normal platelet cells makes it harder for blood to clot properly. Without clotting, even small injuries can lead to severe bleeding. Symptoms may include:
Symptoms Related to Increases in Blood Calcium TOP
The accelerated breakdown of bone tissue caused by multiple myeloma releases excess levels of calcium into the blood. In most cases, elevated calcium levels in the blood may go undetected. As levels increase, serious symptoms may appear, which require treatment. High levels of calcium in the blood, called hypercalcemia, may cause:
Other Symptoms TOP
Depending on it's location, multiple myeloma tumors can cause:
General information about plasma cell neoplasms. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/myeloma/patient/myeloma-treatment-pdq. Updated August 5, 2016. Accessed March 16, 2017.
Hypercalcemia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116018/Hypercalcemia. Updated June 7, 2015. Accessed March 16, 2017.
Multiple myeloma. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116888/Multiple-myeloma. Updated November 21, 2016. Accessed March 16, 2017.
Multiple myeloma. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated August 2013. Accessed March 16, 2017.
Signs and symptoms. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed March 16, 2017.
Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/multiple-myeloma/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html. Updated January 19, 2016. Accessed March 16, 2017.
Last reviewed March 2017 by Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
Last Updated: 5/12/2016
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at email@example.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.