Bradycardia is an abnormally slow heart rate. In adults, it is defined as a heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute. Different types of bradycardia are collectively referred to as bradyarrhythmias. They include:
- Sinus bradycardia—an unusually slow heartbeat due to heart disease, a reaction to medication, or harmless causes such as excellent fitness or deep relaxation
- Sick sinus syndrome—an unusually slow heartbeat due to a malfunction of the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker
- Heart block (atrioventricular block or AV block)—an unusually slow heartbeat due to a slowing or blocking of electrical impulses in the heart’s conduction system
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Bradycardia may be caused by:
Normal responses to:
- Deep relaxation
- Being in excellent physical shape
- The heart’s natural pacemaker developing an abnormal rate or rhythm
- The normal electrical conduction pathway being interrupted
- Another part of the heart taking over as pacemaker
Factors that may increase your chances of bradycardia:
- Increased age
- Taking certain medications used to treat:
- Exposure to certain toxins
- Cardiac disease, such as:
- Electrolyte imbalances
- Sleep apnea
- Systemic lupus erythematosus or other collagen vascular diseases (rare)
- Head injuries
- Infectious diseases, such as:
Some types of bradycardia produce no symptoms. Others may cause noticeable symptoms, such as:
- Fainting or loss of consciousness
- Mild fatigue
- Irregular heart beat
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
Serious forms of bradycardia, such as complete heart block, are medical emergencies. They can lead to loss of consciousness or sudden cardiac arrest.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your heart will be examined with a stethoscope.
- Your doctor may need you to have blood tests. These tests will look for problems that may explain the bradycardia.
- Your doctor may need to test your heart function. This can be done with:
Treatment may not be required if you do not have cardiac symptoms and conditions. Your doctor may choose to monitor your heart rate and rhythm instead.
Treatment may include:
- Stopping any medications that slow the heart rate
- Diagnosing and treating any underlying conditions
- Medication to temporarily increase your heart rate
- An artificial pacemaker to establish and maintain a normal heart rhythm
To help reduce your chances of bradycardia:
- Treat any health conditions that might lead to bradycardia.
- Carefully follow your doctor’s directions when using medications, especially those that can cause bradycardia.
- Check with your physician or pharmacist before using any over-the-counter medication or natural supplement. Make sure it does not interact with your other medications.
- Follow general advice for preventing heart disease, including:
American Heart Association
Heart Rhythm Society
Canadian Heart Rhythm Society
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Bradycardia: Slow heart rate. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/AboutArrhythmia/Bradycardia_UCM_302016_Article.jsp#.Wh2r8FWnFxA. Updated January 5, 2017. Accessed November 28, 2017.
Explore arrhythmia. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/arr. Updated July 1, 2011. Accessed November 28, 2017.
Overview of arrhythmias. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/arrhythmias-and-conduction-disorders/overview-of-arrhythmias. Updated September 2017. Accessed November 28, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC Last Updated: 12/20/2014