Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is an important cofactor, or "assistant," that helps enzymes in the work they do throughout the body. NADH particularly plays a role in the production of energy. It also helps with the production of L-dopa, which the body turns into the important neurotransmitter dopamine.
Based on these basic biochemical facts, NADH has been evaluated as a treatment for jet lag, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and as a sports supplement. However, only a few have meaningful scientific evidence behind it, and even that is highly preliminary.
Healthy bodies make all the NADH they need. The body uses vitamin B3 (also known as niacin or nicotinamide) as a starting point. NADH can also be found in meat. However, most of the NADH in meat is destroyed during processing, cooking, and digestion. In reality, we don't get much NADH from our food.
The typical dosage for supplemental NADH ranges from 5 to 50 mg daily. It is often taken sublingually (under the tongue). Products said to be "stabilized" are available.
NADH supplements have been shown to increase NAD in the blood.13,14 However, this does not mean it will result in other changes.
NADH is thought to help when you are tired by boosting the thought process. Two small double-blind, placebo-controlled trials found that people had better thought process scores after inadequate sleep or jet lag when they took NADH compared to placebo.1,2 The trials were small which decreases reliability. The study on poor sleep was also done by a manufacturer of NADH supplements.
It is hoped that NADH may have some benefits for conditions of the nervous system. So far, trials have had mixed reviews. There is not enough information to say if NADH is effective for:
The overall results look promising, but further research is needed to determine if NADH is effective as a treatment approach.
NADH appears to be quite safe when taken at a dosage of 5 mg daily or less. However, formal safety studies have not been completed, and safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.
1. Kay GG, Viirre E, Clark J. Stabilized NADH as a countermeasure for jet lag. Presented at: 48th International Congress of Aviation and Space Medicine; September 17-21, 2000; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
2. Moline ML, Rebeta JL, Flye BL, et al. Effectiveness of NADH in alleviating effects of sleep deprivation in healthy middle-aged adults. Abstract presented at: The First International Conference on Mechanisms of Action of Nutraceuticals; October 2001.
3. Birkmayer JG. Coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: new therapeutic approach for improving dementia of the Alzheimer type. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1996;26(1):1-9.
4. Rainer M, Kraxberger E, Haushofer M, Mucke HA, Jellinger KA. No evidence for cognitive improvement from oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in dementia. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2000;107(12):1475-1481.
5. Forsyth LM, Preuss HG, MacDowell AL, et al. Therapeutic effects of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999;82:185-191.
6. Santaella ML, Font I, Disdier OM. Comparison of oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) versus conventional therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome. P R Health Sci J. 2004;23(2):89-93.
7. Alegre J, Rosés JM, Javierre C, Ruiz-Baqués A, Segundo MJ, de Sevilla TF. [Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome]. Rev Clin Esp. 2010;210(6):284-288.
8. Birkmayer JG, Vrecko C, Volc D, et al. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)—a new therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease. Comparison of oral and parenteral application. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1993;146:32-35.
9. Dizdar N, Kagedal B, Lindvall B. Treatment of Parkinson's disease with NADH. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994;90:345-347.
10. Kuhn W, Muller T, Winkel R, et al. Parenteral application of NADH in Parkinson's disease: clinical improvement partially due to stimulation of endogenous levodopa biosynthesis. J Neural Transm. 1996;103:1187-1193.
11. Martens CR, Denman BA, Mazzo MR. Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults.Nat Commun. 2018;9(1):1286
12. Brady N, Grant R, Sachdev PS. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and its related precursors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2018 Mar;31(2):160-166.
13. Airhart S, Shireman LM, Risler LJ, et al. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers. PLoS One. 2017 Dec 6;12(12).
14. Dellinger RW, Santos SR, Morris M, et al. Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. NPJ Aging Mech Dis. 2017 Nov 24;3:17.
15. Campagnolo N, Johnston S, Collatz A, et al. Dietary and nutrition interventions for the therapeutic treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017 Jun;30(3):247-259.
16. Kourtzidis IA, Stoupas AT, Gioris IS, et al. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside decreases exercise performance in rats. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Aug 2;13:32.
17. Castro-Marrero J1, Cordero MD, Segundo MJ, et al. Does oral coenzyme Q10 plus NADH supplementation improve fatigue and biochemical parameters in chronic fatigue syndrome? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Mar 10;22(8):679-85.
18. Rennie G, Chen AC, Dhillon H. Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function. Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Jul;18(5):193-200.
19. Mero A, Raitanen R, Birkmayer J, Komi P. Effects of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride on physical and mental performance. J Sports Sci. 2008 Feb 1;26(3):311-9.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 9/4/2018
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