Metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X, is a poorly understood condition in which several cardiovascular disease risk factors develop in a single person. These include:
All of these risk factors are separately associated with an increased rate of atherosclerosis, leading to angina, heart attacks, strokes, intermittent claudication, and related conditions. When they occur together, the risk is even higher. Metabolic syndrome has become increasingly common in the United States; according to the American Heart Association, as many as 50 million Americans may have it.1 Although its causes are not clear, researchers believe that abdominal obesity plays a primary role. Abdominal obesity leads directly to high blood pressure. Perhaps more importantly, it also appears to cause insulin resistance, a condition in which the body does not respond properly to its own insulin. The first signs of insulin resistance include high levels of insulin in the body, impaired glucose tolerance, and disturbances in cholesterol profile. In time, frank diabetes of the type 2 variety can develop. Other elements of the metabolic syndrome may follow.
Exercise and weight loss can reduce insulin resistance; therefore, these two lifestyle "treatments" are the most important for addressing metabolic syndrome. Evidence does suggest that deliberate weight loss through dietary change, accompanied by increased levels of exercise, can in fact help control metabolic syndrome.4 While any diet that effectively reducing weight would presumably work, there is some evidence that a Mediterranean-style diet—low in refined carbohydrates, high in fiber, moderately high in vegetable proteins and high in unsaturated fats—is particularly well suited for patients with this condition.6 Beyond diet, the surgical treatment for obesity (eg, bypass surgery) has also been shown to effectively treat metabolic syndrome.6 The approaches described in the articles on Hypertension, High Cholesterol, and High Triglycerides may also be helpful.
It has also been suggested that deficiency of the mineral chromium may play a role in the development of metabolic syndrome, and that supplementation may help. However, a study of 63 obese, nondiabetic adults with metabolic syndrome found that 16 weeks of supplementation with 1,000 mg chromium picolinate did not improve their insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, body weight, serum lipids or inflammatory state.8 One preliminary placebo-controlled trail suggests that a cinnamon extract may modestly lower blood sugar and blood pressure and raise lean body weight in patients with metabolic syndrome.7 However, the reliability of these results must be questioned since, even at much higher doses, cinnamon has not been consistently shown to lower blood sugar in diabetics, and there is no other evidence of its favorable effects in high blood pressure.
Another preliminary placebo-controlled study tested a proprietary extract of freshwater algae in 60 people with the syndrome and found some evidence of overall benefit.3 In addition, a proprietary formulation of nopal cactus tested on 59 overweight women showed some benefit for their metabolic syndrome.5
2. Laso N, Brugue E, Vidal J, et al. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]
3. Oben J, Enonchong E, Kuate D, et al. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health. Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Sep 5. [Epub ahead of print]
4. Bo S, Ciccone G, Baldi C, et al. Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic syndrome. a randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print]
5. Linares E, Thimonier C, Degre M. The effect of NeOpuntia® on blood lipid parameters-risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (syndrome X). Adv Ther. 2007;24:1115-1125.
6. Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Esposito K. Are there specific treatments for the metabolic syndrome? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:8-11.
7. Ziegenfuss TN, Hofheins JE, Mendel RW, et al. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006;3:45-53.
8. Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, et al. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Summer;7(2):143-50.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 12/15/2015
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.