Alopecia areata happens when the immune system attacks healthy tissue that holds the hair follicles in place. This leads to patchy hair loss.
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The exact cause for the change in the immune system is not known. It is most likely a combination of genes and factors in the environment.
This problem is more common in people under 30 years of age. People who have a personal or family history of these problems are also at higher risk:
- Alopecia areata
- Being more likely to get allergic skin diseases or allergic reactions
- Having another autoimmune disorder, such as lupus
The main symptom is sudden, patchy hair loss. It is most common on the scalp but can also happen in beards, eyebrows, or anywhere on the body. Rarely, a person may lose all hair on the body.
Hair loss may happen once, over a long time, or it may come and go.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the areas of hair loss. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.
If the diagnosis is unclear, a skin biopsy may be done.
There is no cure. Hair will grow back on its own for most people. If hair does not grow back, the goal of treatment is to help hair regrow. Choices are:
Medicines may be given to help regrow hair, such as:
- Medicine to suppress the immune system
Procedures may be an option if medicines do not work. Some choices are:
- Laser therapy to stimulate hair growth
- Hair transplant surgery
- Medical tattooing to give the appearance of eyebrows
Hair loss can cause social anxiety for some. A wig or hairpiece may help ease these feelings. Counseling or support groups may also help.
There are no known guidelines to prevent this health problem.
American Academy of Dermatology
National Alopecia Areata Foundation
Canadian Dermatology Association
Alopecia areata. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/hair-and-scalp-problems/alopecia-areata. Accessed December 31, 2020.
Alopecia areata. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/alopecia-areata. Accessed December 31, 2020.
Alopecia areata. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Alopecia_Areata/default.asp. Accessed December 31, 2020.
Messenger AG, McKillop J, et al. British Association of Dermatologists' guidelines for the management of alopecia areata 2012. Br J Dermatol. 2012 May;166(5):916-926.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD Last Updated: 12/31/2020