by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Chickenpox is a virus that spreads easily to others. It results in an itchy rash.
A virus called varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes this illness. It spreads through:
A pregnant mother can also pass it to her fetus.
The main risk factor is contact with someone with chickenpox. It is most common in children under 10 years of age. It is also more common in winter and spring.
Factors that may raise the chance of problems are:
Symptoms start about 10 to 21 days after contact. They are worse in adults than they are in children.
You may start by having:
The rash appears within 1 to 2 days after the first symptoms. The rash:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. The doctor can often diagnose based on the rash.
Chickenpox is mild in most people. It will pass on its own. In most, it will last for 1 to 3 weeks. Home care can help ease discomfort.
Some may have serious problems from it.
To Reduce Itching
The rash can be very itchy. But scratching can harm the skin. It can also raise risk for infection. Itchiness can be reduced with:
Note : Do not use aspirin in children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving your child aspirin.
High Risk Support
Some people have a higher risk of complications including:
Medicine may help shorten the infection. It may also reduce how severe the symptoms are. Medicines are:
Avoid being around anyone who has chickenpox.
There is a chickenpox vaccine. This can prevent illness even if you have been around someone who is sick. Vaccines may be given:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
College of Family Physicians of Canada
Chickenpox. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116084/Chickenpox . Updated June 19, 2017. Accessed July 16, 2018.
Gales SA, Sweet A, Beninger P, et al. The safety profile of varicella vaccine: a 10-year review. J Infect Dis. 2008;197(Suppl2):S165-9).
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated February 6, 2018. Accessed July 16, 2018.
Marin M, Meissner HC, Seward JF. Varicella prevention in the United States: a review of successes and challenges. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):e744-e751.
A New Product (VariZIG) for Postexposure Prophylaxis of Varicalla Available under an Investigational New Drug Application Expanded Access Protocol. MMWR. 2006;55(8): 209-210.
Skull SA, Wang EE. Varicella vaccination: a critical review of the evidence. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85(2):83-90.
Varicella (chickenpox) vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated November 22, 2016. Accessed July 16, 2018.
Vazquez M, LaRussa PS, Gershon AA, et al. Effectiveness over time of varicella vaccine. JAMA. 2004;291(7):851-855.
10/14/2008 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116084/Chickenpox : Macartney K, McIntryre P. Vaccines for post-exposure prophylaxis against varicella (chickenpox) in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3):CD001833.
Last reviewed May 2018 by James P. Cornell, MD
Last Updated: 7/16/2018
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at email@example.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.