by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth. It usually begins on the tongue and inside of the cheeks. It may also spread to the palate, gums, tonsils, and throat.
Severe, untreated thrush can spread to the:
Thrush is caused by a fungus. There are many microorganisms that normally live in the mouth. When these organisms become imbalanced, the fungus can grow and cause thrush. The imbalance of organisms may be caused by a medical condition or medication.
Factors that may increase your baby's chance of getting thrush include:
Factors that may increase your child's chance of getting thrush include:
Thrush may cause the following in infants:
Thrush may cause the following in children:
You will be asked about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done, including an inspection of the mouth. Diagnosis can usually be done after physical exam. A sample of cells may be taken from the affected area. The sample will be examined under a microscope to confirm thrush or look for other infections.
The goal of treatment is to restore the normal balance of bacteria and yeast in the mouth. If any underlying conditions contribute to thrush, they will also be treated.
In infants, antifungal medications may be a gel or a rinse that is swished around your baby's mouth. Systemic medications may be used if:
Breastfeeding mothers of babies with thrush can use a topical antifungal medication on their nipples to reduce the baby's infection.
Antifungal medications for children may include oral tablets, rinses, or lozenges that dissolve in the mouth.
Proper Oral Hygiene
Oral hygiene practices that may aid in healing include:
To help reduce your child's chance of getting thrush, take these steps:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
Canadian Dental Association
Public Health Agency of Canada
American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Fluoride toothpaste use for young children. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014 Feb;145(2):190-191.
Healthy habits. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed March 20, 2018.
Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated August 4, 2017. Accessed March 20, 2018.
Oral candidiasis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114902/Oral-candidiasis . Updated April 27, 2017. Accessed March 20, 2018.
Oral candidiasis in infants. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed... . Updated June 28, 2016. Accessed March 20, 2018.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of nystatin on the development of oral irritation in patients receiving high-dose intravenous interleukin-2. J Immunother. 2001;24(2):188-192.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 2/17/2014
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.