(Kawasaki Syndrome; Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome)
Kawasaki disease is an illness that affects young children. It causes irritation and swelling of the skin, mouth, and lymph nodes. More serious illness can also lead to swelling of the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen to the heart. The swelling can cause serious heart problems like a weakening of blood vessel walls ( aneurysm) and heart attack.
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The cause of Kawasaki disease is unknown. Some believe it is an infectious agent like a virus. However, Kawasaki does not seem to be contagious. It does not spread through households like the flu.
Kawasaki disease is most common in children younger than 5 years old. It is rare in adults. Children of Asian ethnicity also seem to be more likely to get Kawasaki disease.
Outbreaks of the disease are more common during the winter and early spring months.
Early symptoms in the first 2 weeks may include:
- High fever—lasting for at least 5 days and usually greater than 102 degrees Fahrenheit (38.8 degrees Celsius)
- Red or bloodshot whites of the eyes due to conjunctivitis
- Soreness and swelling of the mouth, lips, and throat
- Strawberry tongue—white/yellow coating and bright red bumps on tongue
- Swollen hands and feet that may look red
- Swollen lymph nodes (organs of the immune system) in the neck
Later symptoms (within 2 weeks of the start of the fever) may include:
- Peeling of skin on hands and feet
- Joint problems
- Diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain
There is no specific test to diagnose Kawasaki disease. You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your child's bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
Images may be taken of your child's heart. This can be done with an echocardiogram.
The electrical activity of your child's heart may be measured. This can be done with an electrocardiogram (EKG).
Kawasaki disease will go away on its own. However, treatment can help to limit the damage the illness does. The sooner Kawasaki disease is treated, the better the outcome. Treatment is especially important to reduce risk of damage to the heart.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options will include one or more of the following:
Intravenous Gamma Globulin
Gamma globulin naturally occurs in the body. It is a protein that helps your body fight infections. This treatment provides a concentrated dose of gamma globulin. It is passed into your bloodstream through an IV.
This treatment may decrease the risk of heart complications. It is most effective when given early in the illness, ideally the first 10 days.
High doses of aspirin may also be advised. Aspirin may help to manage symptoms by:
- Preventing the formation of blood clots
- Reducing fever
- Easing joint swelling
- Treating rashes
Note : Aspirin can cause serious complications in some children with certain infections. It is best to avoid aspirin or aspirin products for children with infections.
Steroid or joint inflammation medication may also be recommended. They may be used if inflammation cannot be controlled with other treatments.
If heart complications develop, they will need to be treated. Specific treatment will depend on the specific problem.
There is no known way to prevent Kawasaki disease.
American Heart Association
Kawasaki Disease Foundation
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Kawasaki disease. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/CardiovascularConditionsofChildhood/Kawasaki-Disease_UCM_308777_Article.jsp. Updated May 8, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Kawasaki disease. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/kawasaki-disease.html. Updated June 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Kawasaki diseases. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/kawasaki.html. Updated September 2014. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Kawasaki diseases. Cincinnati Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/k/kawasaki. Updated April 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Kawasaki disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114968/Kawasaki-disease. Updated November 16, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Newburger JW, Takahashi M, et al. AHA scientific statement: diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki Disease. Circulation. 2004;110:2747-2771.
Taubert KA, Shulman ST. Cardiovascular medicine: Kawasaki disease. Am Fam Physician. 1999;59(11).
Last reviewed November 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD Last Updated: 11/14/2017