Hematuria is blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood.
There are two kinds of hematuria:
- Microscopic hematuria—small amount of blood that is not visible to the naked eye
- Gross hematuria—enough blood to make urine appear red or tea-colored
In some people, the cause is not known. Many things can cause this problem. Some common ones are:
- Injury to the belly, pelvis, or internal organs of the urinary tract
- Certain medicines
- Strenuous exercise
- Urinary tract infection or kidney infection
- Kidney stones
- Kidney disease
- Bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia
- Cancer of the prostate, kidney, or bladder
- Radiation of the pelvis for cancer treatment
- Certain congenital diseases, such as polycystic kidneys
Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:
- Taking certain medicines, such as antibiotics and pain relievers
- A family history of kidney problems
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You may not have any other symptoms.
You may also have symptoms related to the cause. For example, kidney stones can cause pain in the side, belly, or groin.
You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a specialist.
To help find a cause, your doctor may do:
- Urine tests
- Blood tests
Your pelvic and belly structures may need to be viewed. This can be done with:
Some people will not need treatment. Symptoms may go away on their own.
In others, treatment will depend on the cause. Medicine or surgery may be needed.
Prevention will depend on the cause.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Kidney Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Gross hematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/gross-hematuria-approach-to-the-adult. Accessed September 17, 2021.
Hematuria in children. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/hematuria. Accessed September 17, 2021.
Hematuria in children—approach to the patient. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/hematuria-in-children-approach-to-the-patient. Accessed September 17, 2021.
Microhematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/microhematuria-approach-to-the-adult-28. Accessed September 17, 2021.
Urination problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/symptom/urination-problems. Accessed September 17, 2021.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mary-Beth Seymour, RN Last Updated: 9/17/2021