Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection. It most commonly affects the sinuses, lungs, and skin. However, it can affect any part of the body. If not treated right away, it can be fatal.
The infection is caused by a group of fungi. They are found in soil, rotting plants or wood, and compost. The fungi enter the body through cuts in the skin or by inhaling them. They may also be on food that is eaten. Once in the body, the fungi can spread fast.
In healthy people, the body removes the fungi.
The risk of mucormycosis is highest in those with a weak immune system. This can happen with:
- Blood cancers such as leukemia or lymphoma
- Poorly controlled diabetes
- Prior organ transplant
- Long-term steroid use
- Injuries or burns
- Autoimmune disease
- Iron poisoning with deferoxamine
- HIV infection
- IV drug use
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Symptoms depend on where the infection starts. They may be:
- Pain or numbness in the face
- Swollen or bulging eyes
- Redness near the sinuses
- Breathing problems
- Belly pain
- Vomiting blood
A skin infection may start with blisters or sores. The skin may later be tender, red, swollen, and turn black.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam may be done. Tests may be:
The goal is to treat the infection right away. Medicines will be given to fight the fungi. Surgery may be done to remove dead tissue, if needed. The doctor may also need to treat underlying illnesses or change other medicines.
In those with a weak immune system, the risk of mucormycosis may be lowered with medicines.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
Public Health Agency of Canada
The Lung Association
Cornely OA, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, et al. Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the Mycoses Study Group Education and Research Consortium. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19(12):e405-e421.
Mucormycosis. Center for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis/index.html. Accessed February 5, 2021.
Mucormycosis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/mucormycosis. Accessed February 5, 2021.
Mucormycosis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/fungi/mucormycosis. Accessed February 5, 2021.
Last reviewed September 2020 by David L. Horn, MD, FACP Last Updated: 2/5/2021