Surgery may be needed to treat blockages in the male reproductive tract or to correct abnormal structures. Options are:

Varicocele Repair

A varicocele is an enlarged vein in the scrotum. It can reduce sperm count and quality. They usually develop after puberty. Many men do not know they have one until they seek help for fertility issues. It is repaired by making an incision near the groin and cutting off blood supply to the enlarged vein.

Epididymal Obstruction Repair

An epididymal obstruction is a blockage in the coiled tube that connects the testes with the sperm-carrying tubes known as the vas deferens. This can happen due to birth defects, infections, or surgeries. The blockage can be repaired using magnification to see the area and small tools to do surgery.


Infertility in men. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Accessed November 11, 2021.

Male infertility/andrology. American Society for Reproductive Medicine website. Available at: Accessed November 11, 2021.

Overview of infertility. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: Accessed November 11, 2021.

Last reviewed November 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mary-Beth Seymour, RN  Last Updated: 11/16/2021