When it comes to shielding your skin from UV radiation, not all apparel is created equal. You need to know how to select a UV-safe wardrobe, whether it's from your closet or from specially made clothing.
Why Do You Need Protection?
Despite the overwhelming brightness of summer days, only about 48% of sunlight is visible to your eyes. An additional 46% is invisible infrared radiation. The remaining 6% consists of 2 types of invisible ultraviolet radiation—UVA and UVB.
UV radiation is the dangerous component of sunlight. UVB causes sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer. UVA is also involved in sunburn and skin cancer. Although you are more susceptible to damage from UV radiation if you are light-skinned or you live at higher altitudes or near the equator, no one is immune to harm from UV radiation. And for those who try and stay out of the sun completely, if you have less than 15 minutes a day of sun exposure, you will need extra vitamin D from your diet because sun exposure is the primary source of this vitamin. If you do not get enough vitamin D in your diet, talk to your doctor before taking any supplements.
A Standard in Sun Protection: Ultraviolet Protection Factor
There are 3 ways to protect yourself from UV radiation: block it, absorb it, or reflect it away. Sunscreens primarily block or absorb UV radiation, but clothing can protect you all 3 ways. The fabric blocks, the color absorbs or reflects, and special chemical treatments also absorb UV radiation; some even convert it into harmless visible light. Like sunscreen, there is a rating system for clothing called ultraviolet protection factor, or UPF. UPF indicates how much of the sun's UV radiation is absorbed. A fabric rating of 50 means that only 1/50th of the sun's UV rays will pass through. This means the fabric will reduce your skin's UV radiation exposure significantly since only 2 percent of the UV rays can pass.
Assembling Your Wardrobe: Clothing to Protect Against the Sun
Here are some general rules for selecting clothes to keep out UV radiation:
- Tight weaves are better than loose weaves (if you can see through it, UV can get through it).
- Polyester is better than cotton.
- Dark colors are better than light colors.
- Dry clothing is better than wet clothing.
- Choose outfits with long sleeves and long pant legs and collars to get as much protection as possible. Loose clothing can help you stay more cool, even when you are covered up.
Always wear a hat, because your face and head get so much sun exposure.
- A hat made with a light colored material on the outside to reflect UV radiation and keep you cooler, and a darker lining on the brim to prevent UV radiation from reflecting on your face
- A wide brim of at least 3 inches
- No hats or clothing made of netting, mesh, or other loose weaves because they offer little or no UV protection
Obviously, dark, tightly woven polyester is not something you are likely to wear out in the hot sun. And if your clothing is so uncomfortable that you take it off, it doesn't matter how much protection it would have given you. There is clothing that may be more comfortable and that has been designed especially to protect you from the sun. Such clothing is made from fabrics that have been treated with chemical UV absorbers, known as colorless dyes, which prevent some penetration of both UVB and UVA rays. The clothes are also designed to cover as much of the skin as possible.
Clothing can be considered sun-protective if it falls within a specific UPF range. Only clothes with a UPF of 15-50+ may be labeled as sun-protective. Note that, like regular clothing, sun-protective clothing may lose its effectiveness. Some ways that the clothing could be less effective are if it is pulled too tight or stretched out; if it becomes damp or wet; or if it is washed and worn repeatedly.
The right clothing can help guard you, stylishly and comfortably, from the dangers of UV radiation. With carefully chosen clothing, you can reduce the chance of UV damage to your skin.
American Academy of Dermatology
American Cancer Society
Canadian Cancer Society
Canadian Dermatology Association
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Last reviewed January 2016 by Michael Woods, MD Last Updated: 1/25/2016